TABLE 1

Overview of included MeDALL birth cohorts

CohortCountryPeriod of recruitmentSample size n#Inclusion criteriaExclusion criteriaSetting
BAMSE (The Stockholm Children Allergy and Environmental Prospective Birth Cohort Study)Sweden1994–19964089Birth in the selected areasDisabled infants, plan to move, language barrierThree areas of Stockholm (urban and suburban)
BiB (Born in Bradford)England2007–20101716Birth at reference hospitalPlan to move before birthBradford (largely urban)
GINIplus (German Infant Nutritional Intervention study plus influence of pollution and genetics on allergy development)Germany1995–19985991Healthy full-term newborns of German descentSevere illness newborn, pre-term birth, low birthweight, language barrier, maternal history of immune-related disease, long-term medication or drug/alcohol abuseMunich (mostly urban), Wesel (mostly rural)
INMA (Childhood and Environment)
 MenorcaSpain1997–1998482Birth at reference hospitalLanguage barrier, assisted reproduction, mother <16 years, multiple birthsMenorca (mostly urban)
 ValenciaSpain2003–2005855Birth at reference hospitalLanguage barrier, assisted reproduction, mother <16 years, multiple birthsValencia (mostly urban)
 SabadellSpain2004–2007772Birth at reference hospitalLanguage barrier, assisted reproduction, mother <16 years, multiple birthsSabadell (mostly urban)
 GipuzkoaSpain2006–2008406Birth at reference hospitalLanguage barrier, assisted reproduction, mother <16 years, multiple birthsGipuzkoa (mostly urban)
LISAplus (Influence of lifestyle factors on the development of the immune system and allergies in East and West Germany plus the influence of traffic emissions and genetics)Germany1997–19983094Healthy full-term newborns of German descentSevere illness newborn, pre-term birth, low birthweight, language barrier, maternal history of immune-related disease, long-term medication or drug/alcohol abuseMunich (mostly urban), Wesel (mostly rural), Leipzig (mostly urban), Bad Honneff (mostly rural)
MAS (Multicentre Allergy Study)Germany19901314Birth at reference hospitalsLanguage barrier, complications at birth, pre-term birth, low birthweightBerlin, Düsseldorf, Freiburg, Mainz, Munich (urban)
PARIS (Pollution and Asthma Risk: an Infant Study)France2003–20061549Healthy newbornsPre-term, low birthweight, intensive care treatment, language barrierParis and three suburbs (urban)
PIAMA (Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy)The Netherlands1996–19973963Usable screening questionnaireMix of rural, urban, suburban
RHEA (Mother Child Cohort in Crete)Greece2007–20081336Birth at reference hospitalsMother ≤16 years, language barrierHeraklion (island, mix of urban, suburban and rural)
ROBBIC (Rome and Bologna Birth Italian Cohorts)
 Co.N.ER (Bologna birth cohort)Italy2004–2005434Mother Italian citizen, birth at reference hospitalLanguage barrier, newborn moved hospital, mother ≤18 yearsBologna (urban)
 GASPII (Gene and Environment: Prospective Study on Infancy in Italy)Italy2003–2004694Mother Italian residentLanguage barrier, newborn moved hospital, mother ≤17 yearsRome (urban)

#: number of pregnant women or mothers as used in this study; : inclusion based on area of residence specified in last column.