TABLE 3

Univariate regional and financial survey analysis

QuestionRegion-dependent differencesIncome-dependent differences
Differencep-valueDifferencep-value
Who is mostly involved in NIV practical provision?Medical doctors in regions 1, 3 and 40.03Medical doctors in all economies0.04
Is there a reimbursement when NIV is used to manage ARF?Only with private insurance in region 40.04Not present>0.05
NIV in ARF is reimbursed only if it is applied in: …Intensive care unit in regions 3 and 40.04Not present>0.05
Respiratory ward in region 10.02
What are the reasons for the inappropriate use of NIV in ARF?Setting in all regions0.05Financing in LMIEs and UMIEs0.008
What are the factors that limit the use of NIV in ARF?Financing in all regions0.05Financing in LMIEs and UMIEs0.001
What are the determinants for reimbursement of home NIV in patients with CRF?Independent of disease or insurance in region 4<0.0001Independent of disease or insurance in HIEs<0.0001
Dependent on disease in regions 1 and 3<0.0001Dependent on disease in UMIEs<0.0001
Not reimbursed; patients may pay in LMIEs<0.0001
What are the underlying diseases covered by the reimbursement for home NIV?COPD in all regions0.04COPD and chest wall deformities in UMIEs and HIEs0.003
Neuromuscular diseases in UMIEs and HIEs0.009
Obesity hypoventilation syndrome in UMIEs and HIEs0.0002
End-stage lung disease palliative care in HIEs0.006
Not reimbursed in all economies in diffuse interstitial lung diseases>0.05
What are the reasons for the inappropriate use of home NIV in a chronic setting?Financing in regions 1 and 30.0001Setting in all economies0.04
Equipment in LMIEs and UMIEs0.007
Financing in LMIEs and UMIEs<0.0001
What are the factors that limit home NIV in CRF?Financing in regions 1–3<0.0001Financing in LMIEs and UMIEs<0.0001
Equipment in LMIEs and UMIEs0.005
Staff in all economies0.009
Legal regulations in LMIEs0.0007
At the moment NIV is reimbursed in both an acute and chronic setting in: …Indications are based on government regulations in all regions0.03All indications based on government regulations in UMIEs and HIEs<0.0001
No and probably will be not reimbursed in the near future in LMIEs<0.0001

NIV: noninvasive ventilation; ARF: acute respiratory failure; CRF: chronic respiratory failure; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; HIE: high-income economy; UMIE: upper-middle-income economy; LMIE: lower-middle-income economy. See tables 1 and 2 for region- and income-related groups.