Characteristics of the studied patients

VariableValueIntercountry range
Male sex10 865 (67.8)47.3–86.0
Age years70.7±10.763.4–72.7
Current smokers5012 (31.3)15.4–46.8
Tobacco history pack-years47.2±31.229.8–70.8
 Charlson Comorbidity Index score2.4±1.61.7–3.1
 Cardiovascular disease6491 (40.5)32.4–71.4
 Diabetes3181 (19.9)11.9–27.5
 Neoplasms1950 (12.2)2.6–18.9
Body mass index kg·m−226.6±6.425.0–28.5
Admissions in previous 12 months1.2 (1.8)0.4–1.8
 FVC % predicted65.4±20.345.2–74.9
 FEV1 % predicted44.0±17.438.9–56.1
Previous GOLD spirometric classification
 No spirometry available6512±40.79.9–53.6
 Spirometry with no obstruction1226±7.73.2–34.0
 Very severe2098±13.14.8–23.8
Dyspnoea increase15 409 (96.2)92.5–100
Sputum increase10 373 (64.8)49.2–79.0
Sputum colour change8134 (50.8)36.9–63.3
PaCO2 kPa6.4±2.15.7–7.0
PaO2 kPa8.6±3.47.3–10.8
Chest radiography
 Normal or COPD-like findings8051 (50.3)33.0–55.5
 Consolidation2969 (18.5)8.9–32.6
 Other findings4752 (29.7)16.7–58.0
  • Data are presented as n (%) or mean±sd, unless otherwise stated. FVC: forced vital capacity; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1s; GOLD: Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease; PaCO2: arterial carbon dioxide tension; PaO2: arterial oxygen tension; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.