TABLE 4

Unadjusted and adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models predicting the composite outcome of mortality and re-hospitalisations 12 months after index chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) hospitalisation in 2370 patients with COPD

FactorUnadjusted modelsAdjusted model
HR (95% CI)p-value(HR 95% CI)p-value
Baseline MVPA (closest to index hospitalisation)
 0 min·week−11.01.0
 1–149 min·week−10.80 (0.69–0.92)<0.010.85 (0.73–0.97)0.02
 ≥150 min·week−10.67 (0.55–0.81)<0.0010.75 (0.62–0.91)<0.01
Physical activity assessment time
 Increase of 1 day prior to index hospitalisation1.0 (0.99–1.00)<0.011.0 (0.99–1.00)0.03
Age
 Increase of 1 year1.01 (1.01–1.02)<0.0011.00 (1.00–1.01)0.28
Sex
 Female versus male0.96 (0.86–1.06)0.390.95 (0.85–1.06)0.38
Marital status
 Single versus partnered1.10 (0.99–1.22)0.071.06 (0.95–1.18)0.32
BMI
 Normal 18.5–24.9 kg·m−21.01.0
 Underweight <18.5 kg·m−21.20 (0.98–1.47)0.071.27 (1.03–1.55)0.02
 Overweight 25–29.9 kg·m−21.01 (0.88–1.15)0.941.01 (0.88–1.15)0.91
 Obese >30 kg·m−20.88 (0.78–1.00)0.050.86 (0.75–0.99)0.04
Race/ethnicity
 Non-White versus White1.04 (0.93–1.16)0.501.05 (0.94–1.18)0.38
Smoking status
 Never/passive1.01.0
 Former1.12 (0.96–1.31)0.151.05 (0.89–1.23)0.55
 Current0.84 (0.70–1.01)0.071.00 (0.81–1.22)0.96
Medications
 LABA/ICS or LAMA/ICS versus none1.20 (1.08–1.33)<0.0011.10 (0.99–1.22)0.09
 Systemic corticosteroids versus none1.54 (1.34–1.76)<0.0011.20 (1.04–1.38)<0.01
 Any oxygen use versus none1.13 (1.01–1.26)0.041.02 (0.91–1.14)0.80
Hospitalisations
 Any previous hospitalisations versus none1.72 (1.55–1.90)<0.0011.45 (1.30–1.63)<0.001
Comorbidities
 Charlson index
  0–11.01.0
  21.34 (1.11–1.60)<0.011.21 (1.01–1.46)0.04
  ≥31.85 (1.61–2.14)<0.0011.50 (1.28–1.75)<0.001
 Pulmonary hypertension1.52 (1.32–1.75)<0.0011.23 (1.07–1.42)<0.001
 Depression1.13 (1.00–1.28)0.051.02 (0.89–1.15)0.82
Pulmonary rehabilitation
 Yes versus none0.99 (0.81–1.20)0.891.00 (0.82–1.23)0.97
Palliative care consultation
 Yes versus no1.80 (1.47–2.20)<0.0011.19 (0.95–1.49)0.14
Length of stay days
 1–21.01.0
 31.03 (0.88–1.20)0.711.04 (0.89–1.22)0.59
 4–61.31 (1.15–1.51)<0.0011.24 (1.08–1.43)<0.001
 7–131.47 (1.24–1.74)<0.0011.33 (1.11–1.58)<0.001
 14–592.07 (1.56–2.75)<0.0011.71 (1.26–2.32)<0.001
Disposition
 Home1.01.0
 Hospice2.56 (1.96–3.35)<0.0011.74 (1.30–2.33)<0.001
 Post-acute/hospital1.41 (1.16–1.72)<0.0011.14 (0.92–1.41)0.22
 Other/missing1.06 (0.71–1.59)0.781.03 (0.69–1.56)0.87
  • The adjusted model included all variables listed in this table. Bold indicates statistical significance. MVPA: moderate to vigorous physical activity; BMI: body mass index; LABA: long-acting β-agonist; ICS: inhaled corticosteroid; LAMA: long-acting muscarinic antagonist.