TABLE 3

Unadjusted and adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models predicting mortality 12 months after index chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) hospitalisation in 2370 patients with COPD

FactorUnadjusted modelsAdjusted model
HR (95% CI)p-valueHR (95% CI)p-value
Baseline MVPA activity (closest to index hospitalisation)
 0 min·week−11.01.0
 1–149 min·week−10.54 (0.40–0.72)<0.0010.72 (0.54–0.97)0.03
 ≥150 mins·week−10.35 (0.22–0.55)<0.0010.53 (0.34–0.84)<0.01
Physical activity assessment time
 Increase of 1 day prior to index hospitalisation1.00 (0.99–1.00)0.891.00 (0.99–1.00)0.91
Age
 Increase of 1 year1.05 (1.04–1.06)<0.0011.04 (1.02–1.05)<0.001
Sex
 Female versus male0.82 (0.68–0.98)0.030.76 (0.62–0.93)<0.01
Marital status
 Single versus partnered1.21 (0.10–1.46)0.051.04 (0.85–1.27)0.73
BMI
 Normal 18.5–24.9 kg·m−21.01.0
 Underweight <18.5 kg·m−22.14 (1.64–2.81)<0.0012.40 (1.82–3.16)<0.001
 Overweight 25–29.9 kg·m−20.64 (0.50–0.81)<0.0010.70 (0.54–0.89)<0.01
 Obese >30 kg·m−20.49 (0.39–0.63)<0.0010.64 (0.49–0.83)<0.001
Race/ethnicity
 Non-White versus White0.84 (0.69–1.03)0.100.95 (0.77–1.17)0.61
Smoking status
 Never/passive1.01.0
 Former1.53 (1.11–2.09)0.011.34 (0.97–1.85)0.07
 Current1.24 (0.86–1.78)0.251.62 (1.10–2.38)0.01
Medications
 LABA/ICS or LAMA/ICS versus none0.90 (0.75–1.08)0.270.87 (0.72–1.06)0.16
 Systemic corticosteroids versus none1.71 (1.36–2.15)<0.0011.40 (1.10–1.78)<0.01
 Any oxygen use versus none1.48 (1.22–1.79)<0.0011.16 (0.95–1.41)0.15
Hospitalisations
 Any previous hospitalisations versus none1.45 (1.21–1.74)<0.0011.11 (0.91–1.36)0.31
Comorbidities
 Charlson index score
  0–11.01.0
  21.31 (0.90–1.91)0.161.21 (0.82–1.78)0.34
  ≥ 32.43 (1.82–3.25)<0.0011.75 (1.28–2.39)<0.001
 Pulmonary hypertension2.08 (1.67–2.59)<0.0011.69 (1.34–2.12)<0.001
 Depression1.09 (0.88– .36)0.441.05 (0.84–1.33)0.65
Pulmonary rehabilitation
 Yes versus no0.33 (0.19–0.58)<0.0010.47 (0.26–0.85)0.01
Palliative care consultation
 Yes versus no4.40 (3.41–5.69)<0.0011.70 (1.26–2.29)<0.001
Length of stay days
 1–21.01.0
 31.20 (0.88–1.63)0.251.27 (0.93–1.74)0.13
 4–61.69 (1.29–2.20)<0.0011.60 (1.21–2.09)<0.001
 7–132.20 (1.62–2.98)<0.0011.87 (1.35–2.57)<0.001
 14–59 3.20 (2.05–4.99)<0.0012.48 (1.51–4.08)<0.001
Disposition
 Home1.01.0
 Hospice11.25 (8.39–15.1)<0.0015.23 (3.74–7.34)<0.001
 Post-acute/hospital2.64 (1.99–3.51)<0.0011.37 (0.99–1.90)0.06
 Other/missing2.02 (1.13–3.59)0.021.51 (0.84–2.71)0.17
  • The adjusted model included all variables listed in this table. Bold indicates statistical significance. MVPA: moderate to vigorous physical activity; BMI: body mass index; LABA: long-acting β-agonist; ICS: inhaled corticosteroid; LAMA: long-acting muscarinic antagonist.