Subjects' characteristics, spirometry and exercise test results

Subjects n5841
Age years73.6±4.073.2±2.7
Weight kg81.3±13.367.7±11.5
Height cm172.2±0.1159.5±0.1
Body mass index kg·m−228.0±3.626.2±3.6
Current smokers5 (8.6)0 (0)
Former smokers32 (55.0)9 (21.9)
Intense physical activity13 (22.4)6 (14.6)
Moderate physical activity31 (53.4)27 (65.8)
Sedentary14 (24.2)8 (19.6)
FVC L3.7±0.72.8±0.6
FVC % predicted101.7±20.1122.8±25.4
FEV1 L2.7±0.62.2±0.4
FEV1 % pred99.6±22.8117.1±21.6
FEV1/FVC %74.1±8.978.7±6.3
Oxygen uptake at rest L·min−10.30±0.070.23±0.06
Heart rate at rest beats·min−176±1277±13
Ventilation at rest L11.52±2.618.42±1.64
Maximal oxygen uptake L·min−11.88±0.411.26±0.24
Maximal workload W127.33±36.6684.20±18.29
Maximal heart rate beats·min−1142±21137±18
 % pred#87.2±13.085.8±10.6
Maximal ventilation L72.77±18.3149.50±13.22
 % pred#77.6±17.468.0±16.7
Maximal VE/VCO234.19±4.6334.83±5.66
Maximal VE/VO238.38±7.3739.40±6.91
Maximal respiratory exchange ratio1.14±0.101.15±0.07
  • Data are presented as mean±sd or n (%), unless otherwise stated. The exercise test was performed on an electrically-braked cycle ergometer. FVC: forced vital capacity; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; VE: minute ventilation; V′CO2: carbon dioxide output; VO2: oxygen uptake. #: predicted maximal ventilation was calculated as the subject's FEV1×35; predicted maximal heart rate was calculated as 210−0.65×(age) [7].