Equations used for calculation of predicted maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max)

First author [ref.], yearCharacteristics of the population samplesPrediction equations for VO2max#
Wasserman [11], 1999The published equations were modified from:
 Hansen et al. [10]
  77 males, 34–74 years
  Asbestos exposed workers with normal
cardiorespiratory function, California, USA
 Bruce et al. [9]
  138 males, 157 females, 29–73 years
  General population, Washington, USA
 (50.72−(0.372×Age))×Weight (units of mL·min−1) 
 Example: predicted value: 1.92 L·min−1; no LLN can be calculated
 (22.78−(0.17×Age))×(Weight+43) (units of mL·min−1)
 Example: predicted value: 1.16 L·min−1; no LLN can be calculated
Jones [8], 198550 males, 50 females, 15–71 years
Subjects recruited by advertising from the local university and general population, Ontario, Canada
(0.046×Height)−(0.021×Age)−(0.62×Sex)−4.31 (units of L·min−1)
Sex: male=0; female=1
 Example: predicted: 2.09 L·min−1; LLN: 1.14 (55% pred)
 Example: predicted: 0.92 L·min−1; LLN: 0.15 (16% pred)
Blackie [12], 198981 males, 47 females, 55–80 years
Subjects recruited locally by advertising from hospital and community centres, British Columbia, Canada
  (units of L·min−1)
 Example: predicted: 2.11 L·min−1; LLN: 1.25 (60% pred)
 (0.0142×Height)−(0.0115×Age)+(0.00974×Weight)−0.651 (units of L·min−1)
Example: predicted: 1.45 L·min−1; LLN: 0.90 (62% pred)
Koch [17], 2009Disease-free subjects, 253 males, 281 females, 25–80 years
Representative sample selected from the population registration offices in Pomerania, Germany
 +(1.3797×Age×Sex×BMI) (units of L·kg−1·min−1)
With: Age >65 years=5; Sex male=1, female=2; BMI ≤25 kg·m−2=0, BMI >25 kg·m−2=1
 Example: predicted: 1.97 L·min−1; LLN: 1.43 (73% pred)
 Example: predicted: 1.35 L·min−1; LLN: 1.13 (84% pred)
Hakola [13], 2011Nondiseased subjects, 117 males, 112 females, 57–78 years Subjects randomly selected from the town of Kuopio, FinlandMen
 4.846−(0.039×Age) (units of L·min−1)
 Example: predicted: 1.91 L·min−1; LLN: 1.12 (59% pred)
 3.475−(0.031×Age) (units of L·min−1)
 Example: predicted: 1.32 L·min−1; LLN: 0.70 (53% pred)
  • Exercise tests were performed using cycle ergometers. LLN: lower limit of normal; BMI: body mass index. #: for all equations, age is in years, height in cm and weight in kg; : Predicted VO2max and LLN (L·min−1) have been calculated for an illustrative individual (72 years-old; male: 80 kg and 172 cm; female: 67 kg and 160 cm).