Summary of treatment effect estimates, weighted according to outcome

VO2peak L·min−1Peak work rate WCycle endurance minISWT mESWT6MWT m12MWT m
Additional exercise training
 LL strength0.10 (−0.08–0.29); N2=32i versus 28c3.64 (−4.95–12.30); N4=54i versus 54c2.50 (−20.63–25.64); N6=62i versus 68c
 UL/LL strength0.00 (−0.18–0.16); N1=14i versus 14c23.36 (−4.59–51.32)#; N3=54i versus 47c4.78 (−122.43–131.99); N1=14i versus 14c
 Other0.10 (−0.31–0.51); N1=12i versus 12c−2.00 (−44.24–42.24); N1=12i versus 12c24.43 (0.13–48.74); N3=57i versus 56c
NIV0.08 (−0.08–0.24); N3=25i versus 26c−0.03 (−7.55–7.50); N4=35i versus 36c0.61 (−5.23–6.46)#; N3=27i versus 25c23.71 (2.65–44.77); N2=27i versus 31c−17.35 (−48.39–13.70); N2=39i versus 42c
Oxygen−0.11 (−0.29–0.07); N3=36i versus 32c−1.38 (−5.47–2.72); N3=36i versus 32c4.70 (−1.96–11.36); N1=14i versus 15c233.38 (−245.24–712.0) m#; N2=40i versus 45c−37.0 (−98.61–24.61); N1=12i versus 12c
Heliox0.02 (−0.04–0.08); N2=26i versus 20c4.61 (−0.50–9.72); N2=26i versus 20c5.20 (−0.17–10.57); N1=16i versus 15c
Prescription medications
 Tiotropium5.35 (0.89–9.81); N1=47i versus 44c7.06 (−15.13–29.26); N2=68i versus 74c
 Anabolic steroids0.10 (−0.02–0.23); N1=33i versus 30c4.00 (−5.28–13.28); N1=33i versus 30c−63.0 (−91.09– −34.91); N1=10i versus 7c
 Growth hormone0.05 (0.01–0.09); N2=18i versus 18c−11.00 (−26.48–4.48); N1=8i versus 8c−26.21 (−148.92–96.50)#; N2=22i versus 23c
 Vitamin D0.64 (0.07–1.22); N1=25i versus 24c7.00 (−0.28–14.28); N1=25i versus 24c29.0 (−7.62–65.62); N1=25i versus 24c
 Hypertonic saline−190.0 (−247.34– −132.66); N1=30i versus 27c
Nutritional supplementation
 Proteins/fats−0.03 (−0.12–0.06); N1=38i versus 42c9.00 (4.32–13.68); N1=38i versus 42c2.86 (−2.00–7.72); N1=10i versus 10c−19.48 (−42.23–3.27); N2=40i versus 50c−0.24 (−1.65–1.17) min; N1=15i versus 15c8.02 (−31.21–47.26); N2=31i versus 25c
 Creatine0.14 (−0.02–0.29); N1=14i versus 11c4.29 (−9.53–18.11); N1=14i versus 11c−3.62 (−31.75–24.52); N2=52i versus 53c−0.11 (−0.46–0.24) units; N3=65i versus 63c
 Amino acids−0.90 (−14.55–12.75); N1=30i versus 30c53.00 (24.09–81.91); N1=8i versus 8c
Breathing exercises
 Inspiratory muscle training0.03 (−0.26–0.31) units; N6=97i versus 95c−0.07 (−10.56–10.43); N4=70i versus 69c12.72 (−16.21–42.26); N4=55i versus 49c211.45 (−56.66–479.56)#; N3=39i versus 41c
 Breathing retraining0.20 (−1.58–1.98); N1=17i versus 16c8.50 (−4.38–21.38); N1=17i versus 16c−12.58 (−35.93–10.77); N1=20i versus 20c
Other−0.28 (−0.83–0.27); N1=24i versus 27c3.20 (−24.06–30.46); N1=16i versus 25c10.26 (−21.85–42.38); N6=78i versus 183c
  • Data are presented as mean difference (95% CI), where the mean difference is the change from baseline and a positive effect estimate favours intervention (“add-on” therapies). Data from individual studies may appear more than once across different outcomes (columns). VO2peak: peak oxygen uptake; ISWT: incremental shuttle walk test; ESWT: endurance shuttle walk test; 6MWT: 6-min walk test; 12MWT: 12-min walk test; LL: lower limb; UL: upper limb; NIV: noninvasive ventilation; Nx: number of participants (x is number of studies); i: intervention group; c: control group. #: random effects model; : standardised mean difference. Bold indicates statistically significant treatment effect.