Summary of standardised effect estimates for studies defined as “exemplar” models of patient-centred care

VO2peak L·min−1Peak work rate WCycle endurance minISWT mESWT6MWT m12MWT m
Additional exercise training
 LL strength
 UL/LL strength
 Other39.00 (−54.57–132.57); N1=9i versus 8c
NIV0.15 (−0.29–0.59) units; N2=39i versus 42c8.00 (−5.53–21.53); N1=9i versus 10c3.50 (−1.38–8.38); N1=10i versus 11c17.00 (−5.47–39.47); N1=10i versus 11c15.00 (−41.69–71.69); N1=30i versus 32c
Oxygen−4.52 (−17.07–8.03); N2=26i versus 27c4.70 (−1.96–11.36); N1=14i versus 15c233.38 (−245.24–712.0) m#; N2=40i versus 45c−37.0 (−98.61–24.61); N1=12i versus 12c
Prescription medications
 Tiotropium4.66 (−69.63–78.95); N1=11i versus 11c
 Anabolic steroids−0.59 (−1.58–0.40) units; N1=10i versus 7c−63.0 (−91.09– −34.91); N1=10i versus 7c
 Growth hormone0.05 (0.01–0.09); N2=18i versus 18c−26.21 (−148.92–96.50)#; N2=22i versus 23c
 Vitamin D
 Hypertonic saline
Nutritional supplementation
 Proteins/fats−26.00 (−72.28–20.28); N1=15i versus 15c−0.12 (−0.84–0.6) units; N1=15i versus 15c−0.70 (−42.16–40.76); N1=15i versus 15c
 Amino acids
Breathing exercises
 Inspiratory muscle training−0.06 (−0.19–0.07); N1=20i versus 20c−7.00 (−32.90–18.90); N1=20i versus 20c69.00 (−154.89–292.89); N1=20i versus 20c
 Breathing retraining
  • Data are presented as mean difference (95% CI), where the mean difference is the change from baseline and a positive effect estimate favours intervention (“add-on” therapies). Data from individual studies may appear more than once across different outcomes (columns). VO2peak: peak oxygen uptake; ISWT: incremental shuttle walk test; ESWT: endurance shuttle walk test; 6MWT: 6-min walk test; 12MWT: 12-min walk test; LL: lower limb; UL: upper limb; NIV: noninvasive ventilation; Nx: number of participants (x is number of studies); i: intervention group; c: control group. #: random effects model; : standardised mean difference. Bold indicates statistically significant treatment effect.