TABLE 1

Characteristics of 101# participants in the analytical cohort and unadjusted analyses of 20 factors associated with adherence

VariableParticipantsEffect sizep-value
Age years8.9±2.7−1.5% (95% CI−3.2–0.2%) per year0.09
Sex
 Male5226 (15–43)0.05
 Female4940 (19–60)
Qualification of primary caregiver 
 None836 (11–42)
 Secondary school2228 (15–53)0.81
 Tertiary4526 (12–47)
 Postgraduate2242 (21–51)
 Missing4
Ethnicity
 Māori1019 (13–44)
 European3926 (17–43)
 Pacific Peoples2028 (13–40)0.002
 Middle Eastern/Latin American/African435 (5–68)
 Asian1947 (30–83)
 Other931 (21–46)
Deprivation index6.0±2.7+0.002% (95% CI−1.7–1.7%) per deprivation scale0.99
People in household4.8±1.9; 98#−3.4% (95% CI−5.8– −0.1%) per person added to household0.005
Family status
 Single+3526 (15–47)0.39
 Not single§6532 (18–49)
 Missing1
Able to discuss concerns with the healthcare professional looking after the child
 No824 (6–49)0.68
 Yes9231 (17–48)0.68
 Missing1
Delayed picking up medications due to cost
 No7831 (16–48)
 Yes2126 (16–49)0.87
 Missing2
Delayed seeing the doctor due to cost
 No6931 (16–54)
 Yes3028 (16–46)0.28
 Missing2
Easy access to doctor
 No1037 (18–52)0.91
 Yes9030 (17–48)0.91
 Missing1
Easy access to pharmacy
 No220 (7– -)0.37
 Yes9930 (17–48)
Age at asthma diagnosis years3.3±2.3−1.7% (95% CI−3.7–0.3%) per year0.09
Childhood Asthma Control Test18.8±4.2; 100#+0.9% (95% CI−0.2–2.0%) per 1 point on the Childhood Asthma Control Test0.11
Asthma Morbidity Score9.2±2.6; 100#−0.3% (95% CI−2.1–1.5%) per 1 point on the Asthma Morbidity Score0.73
Medication side-effects
 No9129 (17–48)0.84
 Yes1033 (11–46)
Healthcare provider involved in routine follow-up asthma care
 None (no follow-up)272 (60– -)
 General practitioner7426 (12–43)0.003
 Specialist531 (23–61)
 Asthma nurse1551 (15–85)
 Multiple providers546 (26–61)
Asthma Responsibility Questionnaire23.7±8.1−0.2% (95% CI−0.7–0.4%) per 1 point of Asthma Responsibility Questionnaire0.53
Asthma Knowledge Test19.1±2.7+0.7% (95% CI−1.0–2.4%) per 1 point of Asthma Knowledge Test0.42
Learning styles
 Aural6429 (17–48)0.76
 Non-aural3030 (14–49)
 Missing7
  • Data are presented as mean±sd, n or median (interquartile range), unless otherwise stated. Bold data indicates statistical significance. #: data do not total 101 for some parameters due to missing data from participants who did not completed the relevant questionnaire(s). Median (interquartile range) adherence for the total sample (n=101) was 30% (17–48%); : based on the NZDep2006 deprivation index (1=least deprived, 10=most deprived). This is an indicator of socioeconomic deprivation of the area where the individual resides. Scores are derived from census data on income, home ownership, employment, qualifications, family structure, housing, access to transport and communications; +: single parent/divorced/separated /widowed/single; §: de facto/extended whanau/married.