TABLE 2

Nocturnal symptoms, early morning symptoms, sleep disturbances and cognitive functioning in the study population

COPDGOLD IGOLD IIGOLD IIIGOLD IVp-value#
Subjects n56219423210333
Nocturnal symptoms
 IUATLD shortness of breath100 (17.8)10 (5.2)¶,+,§39 (16.8)+,§31 (30.1)§20 (60.6)<0.001
 IUATLD coughing203 (36.1)39 (20.1)¶,+,§80 (34.5)+,§60 (58.3)24 (72.7)<0.001
Early morning symptoms
 Coughing232 (41.3)35 (18.0)¶,+,§91 (39.2)+,§76 (73.8)§30 (90.9)<0.001
 Expectoration264 (47.0)37 (19.1)¶,+,§112 (48.3)+,§88 (85.4)27 (81.8)<0.001
Sleep disturbances
 EPESE points4.2±4.44.5±4.54.1±4.43.7±4.15.1±4.60.257
 EPESE ≥8175 (31.1)64 (33.0)70 (30.2)29 (28.2)12 (36.4)0.739
 EPESE difficulty falling asleep97 (17.3)38 (19.6)31 (13.4)23 (22.3)5 (15.2)0.160
 EPESE nocturnal awakenings171 (30.4)64 (33.0)68 (29.3)31 (30.1)8 (24.2)0.720
 EPESE morning tiredness38 (6.8)29 (14.9)38 (16.4)19 (18.4)8 (24.2)0.569
 EPESE early awakenings94 (16.7)14 (7.2)213 (5.6)9 (8.7)2 (6.1)0.748
Cognitive functioning
 Age and education adjusted MMSE28.4±3.728.9±2.928.4±4.027.7±4.628.6±3.10.064
 MMSE ≤24142 (25.3)39 (20.1)68 (29.3)24 (23.3)11 (33.3)0.107
 MMSE orientation percentage correct0.93±0.10.96±0.090.92±0.160.92±0.150.93±0.140.014
 MMSE memory percentage correct0.86±0.20.87±0.170.86±0.180.83±0.200.85±0.180.228
 MMSE attention and calculation percentage correct0.76±0.30.78±0.310.75±0.340.72±0.360.79±0.300.462
 MMSE language percentage correct0.91±0.10.95±0.10¶,+0.91±0.140.88±0.190.91±0.120.001
 MMSE design copying failed178 (33.3)48 (25.3)+76 (34.5)41 (43.6)13 (43.3)0.001
  • Data are presented as n, mean±sd or n (%), unless otherwise stated. COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; GOLD: Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease; IUATLD: International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Bronchial Symptoms questionnaire; EPESE: Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly questionnaire; MMSE: Mini-Mental State Examination. #: comparisons between patients with COPD GOLD grade I–IV; : p<0.05 versus GOLD II; +: p<0.05 versus GOLD III; §: p<0.05 versus GOLD IV.