TABLE 4

Clinical outcomes, corrected for clustering, time, treatment and Medical Research Council dyspnoea score# for the COPD-GRIP (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease – Guidance, Research on Illness Perception) intervention group and the usual-care group

Baseline6weeks3months9monthsMean difference (95% CI)Treatment*time interaction at 9months
p-values
CCQ total0.04 (−0.09–0.17)0.197
 Intervention1.9±1.21.8±1.12.0±1.32.0±1.2
 Usual care1.6±1.11.7±1.11.8±1.11.7±1.1
CRQ-SAS+ fatigue−0.06 (−0.28–0.16)0.631
 Intervention4.5±1.44.5±1.54.5±1.54.4±1.4
 Usual care4.7±1.44.8±1.44.7±1.34.7±1.4
CRQ-SAS+ dyspnoea0.16 (−0.13–0.04)0.162
 Intervention5.8±1.45.6±1.65.6±1.55.5±1.6
 Usual care5.6±1.55.6±1.55.6±1.45.7±1.5
CRQ-SAS+ emotional0.03 (−0.21–0.27)0.463
 Intervention5.0±1.25.2±1.35.2±1.35.1±1.3
 Usual care5.2±1.25.3±1.25.2±1.15.3±1.2
CRQ-SAS+ mastery0.09 (−0.11–0.28)0.375
 Intervention5.4±1.05.4±1.15.3±1.35.3±1.2
 Usual care5.4±1.35.4±1.35.4±1.25.5±1.2
FPI+−0.12 (−0.33–0.08)0.074
 Intervention1.7±0.71.6±0.71.6±0.71.5±0.7
 Usual care1.8±0.61.8±0.71.7±0.71.8±0.7
B-IPQ§ (control)−0.22 (−0.70–0.26)0.005
 Intervention5.5(2.76.5±2.16.1±2.56.6±2.2
 Usual care6.4±2.36.5±2.16.9±1.76.2±2.3
heiQ+ (HDB)−0.12 (−0.26–0.03)0.024 (6 weeks)
 Intervention2.8±0.73.1±0.73.0±0.52.9±0.8
 Usual care3.1±0.73.1±0.63.1±0.63.1±0.6

Data are presented as mean±sd, unless otherwise stated. CCQ: Clinical COPD Questionnaire; CRQ-SAS: self-administered Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire short form; FPI: Functional Performance Inventory; B-IPQ: brief illness perception questionnaire; heiQ: Health Education Impact Questionnaire; HDB: health-directed behaviour. #: lower scores mean less burden of dyspnoea; : lower score means better health-related quality of life (HRQoL); +: higher scores mean better HRQoL, functional performance and health education impact; §: lower scores on consequences, identity, concern and emotional response and higher scores on timeline, personal control, treatment control and comprehensibility mean more positive perceptions.