Multilevel, multivariable modified Poisson regression assessing predictors of receiving guidelines-based therapy or macrolide resistance-associated therapy among laboratory-confirmed Mycobacterium avium complex cases

Any regimenGuidelines-based therapyResistance-associated therapy
Multiple hospital encounters1.1 (0.9–1.2)1.5 (1.0–2.2)*0.8 (0.6–1.0)*
Pulmonary NTM ICD-9 code (no/yes)1.2 (1.0–1.5)*5.9 (3.9–8.8)#0.7 (0.5–1.1)
COPD ICD-9 code (no/yes)1.1 (0.9–1.3)1.1 (0.7–1.6)1.0 (0.7–1.3)
TB ICD-9 code (no/yes)1.2 (0.9–1.6)4.5 (2.8–7.2)#0.1 (0.0–0.4)#
Concomitant pathogen isolated (no/yes)1.0 (0.8–1.2)0.9 (0.6–1.4)0.8 (0.6–1.1)
Radiology conducted (no/yes)10.5 (6.6–16.8)#10.4 (3.6–30.0)#16.8 (5.3–53.8)#

Data are presented as adjusted relative risk (95% CI). Random effect for facility was included in regression. Additional covariates were controlled for at the facility-level (setting, teaching status, number of beds, location), encounter-level (admission source, specialty of attending physician, inpatient status), and patient-level (age, sex, race). NTM: nontuberculous mycobacteria; ICD-9: International Classification of Diseases (9th revision); COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; TB: tuberculosis. *: p≤0.05, #: p≤0.005.