Inclusion and exclusion criteria

Inclusion criteriaExclusion criteria
  • A confirmed diagnosis of COPD (FEV1/FVC ratio <70% [5]

  • All levels of COPD disease severity (mild–very severe)

  • HADS-Anxiety Subscale score of ≥8

  • Consent to 2–6 sessions of CBT [23]

  • A HADS-Anxiety Subscale score of <8

  • Known psychiatric history such as psychosis

  • Patients currently receiving psychological talking therapy including CBT treatment

  • Patients with cognitive impairment (e.g. dementia)

  • Patients involved in any other interventional clinical trial

COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC: forced vital capacity; HADS: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; CBT: cognitive behavioural therapy.