TABLE 2

The association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the development of peripheral arterial disease (PAD), additionally stratified by sex and smoking status

StratificationSubjectsModel 1#Model 2p-value+
OverallNo PADPADOR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
Overall3123 (100)2676 (100)447 (100)
 Non-COPD3038 (97.3)2611 (97.6)427 (95.5)Ref
 COPD85 (2.7)65 (2.4)20 (5.0)1.89 (1.13–3.18)1.87 (1.10–3.18)
Sex0.18
 Male
  Non-COPD1293 (41.4)1122 (41.9)171 (38.3)Ref
  COPD45 (1.4)32 (1.2)13 (2.9)2.61 (1.33–5.12)2.59 (1.04–5.16)
 Female
  Non-COPD1745 (55.9)1489 (55.6)256 (57.3)Ref
  COPD40 (1.3)33 (1.2)7 (1.6)1.24 (0.54–2.87)1.22 (0.53–2.87)
Smoking status0.41
 Never smoker
  Non-COPD1066 (34.1)921 (34.4)145 (32.4)Ref
  COPD15 (0.5)13 (0.5)2 (0.4)1.00 (0.21–4.47)1.20 (0.26–5.57)
 Ever smoker
  Non-COPD1972 (63.1)1690 (63.2)282 (63.1)Ref
  COPD70 (2.2)52 (1.9)18 (4.0)2.00 (1.14–3.50)1.98 (1.12–3.49)

Data are presented as n (%) or ratio (95% CI). Data for smoking is represented by imputed values. Values in bold are statistically significant. OR: odds ratio; Ref: reference value. #: model 1 is adjusted for age and sex; : model 2 is adjusted for age, sex, smoking duration in pack-years, hypertension, high-density lipoprotein/cholesterol ratio and diabetes mellitus; +: p-value for interaction, calculated by adding an interaction term to model 2.