TABLE 2

Lipoarabinomannan as a potential biomarker for tuberculosis diagnosis

Type of testPresent statusTo be explored
Urine antigen detectionLow sensitivity, high specificity
Useful in subgroup of HIV-positive
Solve matrix problems
Increase sensitivity
Generate a true POC test
Serum antigen detectionMatrix problems
Immune complexes
Solve matrix and immune complex problems
Cellular immune responseConsidered a potential alternative to present IGRAMarker of protection (polycytotoxic T-cells)
Humoral immune responseLow sensitivity, high specificityUsefulness for specific subgroups
Marker of protection

IGRA: interferon-γ release assay; POC: point-of-care.