TABLE 1

Associations between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease outcomes and heparin-anticoagulated plasma microfibrillar-associated protein 4 in patients stratified into current smokers and former smokers

SubjectsAll#Former smokersCurrent smokers+
β-coefficient (95% CI)p-valueβ-coefficient (95% CI)p-valueβ-coefficient (95% CI)p-value
Year 0 (enrolment)
 6MWD m9791.16 (0.05–2.27)0.041.30 (0.01–2.60)0.0490.66 (−1.60–2.90)ns
 mMRC961−0.004 (−0.01–0.01)ns0.0006 (−0.01–0.01)ns−0.02 (−0.04– −0.002)0.03
 SGRQ965−0.20 (−0.37– −0.02)0.03−0.10 (−0.30–0.10)ns−0.52 (−0.88– −0.15)0.006
 BODE index939−0.02 (−0.04– −0.001)0.04−0.02 (−0.05– −0.0001)0.049−0.01 (−0.05–0.03)ns
 GOLD stage996−0.01 (−0.02– −0.006)<0.001−0.02 (−0.02– −0.01)<0.001−0.003 (−0.02–0.009)ns
 PD-FEV1 mL9966.9 (2.5–11.3)0.0029.2 (4.1–14.3)<0.001−1.3 (−10.2–7.6)ns
 PD-FEV1 % predicted9960.25 (0.10–0.39)0.0010.31 (0.15–0.48)<0.0010.02 (−0.27–0.30)ns
 LAA%887−0.12 (−0.22–−0.01)0.03−0.15 (−0.28–−0.02)0.020.02 (−0.17–0.21)ns
 CVD history9961.04§ (1.02–1.07)<0.0011.06§ (1.03–1.08)<0.0011.01§ (0.96–1.05)ns
 Agaston score total3627.3 (−5.3–19.9)ns2.9 (−11.3–17.2)ns22.5 (−3.7–48.6)ns
Year 1 (MFAP4 measurement)
 IL-6 pg·mL−18600.01 (−0.11–013)ns−0.02 (−0.18–0.14)ns0.10 (−0.04–0.24)ns
 Fibrinogen mg·dL−1969−1.3 (−2.3– −0.3)0.01−1.4 (−2.5– −0.3)0.01−0.7 (−2.8–1.5)ns
 PD-FEV1 mL9965.1 (0.4–9.7)0.037.2 (1.8–12.5)0.008−2.5 (−12.0–7.1)ns
 PD-FEV1 % predicted9960.19 (0.04–0.34)0.020.24 (0.07–0.41)0.006−0.01 (−0.31–0.30)ns
 PD-FVC mL996−0.4 (−7.7–6.9)ns0.2 (−8.0–8.6)ns−3.8 (−18.9–11.4)ns
 PD-FEV1/FVC %9960.2 (0.1–0.3)0.0010.2 (0.1–0.4)<0.001−0.02 (−0.2–0.2)ns
 ΔFEV1 mL year 1−year 0996−1.9 (−4.1–0.03)ns−2.0 (−4.2–0.3)ns−1.7 (−6.8–3.4)ns
 Exacerbations996−0.012 (−0.026–0.002)ns−0.017 (−0.034– −0.0005)0.0430.003 (−0.024–0.030)ns
 PD15 g·L−10.4 (0.2–0.6)0.0010.5 (0.2–0.8)<0.0010.08 (−0.04–0.6)ns
 LAA%948−0.15 (−0.25– −0.04)0.006−0.19 (−0.32– −0.06)0.0040.01 (−0.18–0.20)ns
 ΔLAA% year 1−year 0887−0.012 (−0.048–0.024)ns−0.021 (−0.065–0.024)ns0.017 (−0.047–0.081)ns
Year 3 (follow-up)
 PD-FEV1 mL9255.4 (0.4–10.3)0.037.5 (1.7–13.4)0.01−1.3 (−10.8–8.3)ns
 PD-FEV1 % predicted9250.21 (0.05–0.37)0.010.28 (0.09–0.47)0.004−0.005 (−0.31–0.30)ns
 ΔFEV1 mL year 3−year 19251.0 (−1.2–3.3)ns1.6 (−0.9–4.1)ns−0.5 (−5.3–4.3)ns
 Exacerbations995−0.014 (−0.028–0.00003)ns−0.015 (−0.03–0.002)ns−0.013 (−0.040–0.015)ns
 LAA%876−0.17 (−0.30– −0.04)0.009−0.19 (−0.3– −0.03)0.02−0.09 (−0.31–0.12)ns
 ΔLAA% year 3−year 18766.1×10–6 (−0.05–0.05)ns0.03 (−0.03–0.08)ns−0.06 (−0.15–0.02)ns
 Death9961.04§ (1.01–1.08)0.021.04§ (1.01–1.08)0.020.95§ (0.74–1.22)ns

6MWD: 6-min walking distance; mMRC: modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea score; SGRQ: St George's Respiratory Questionnaire score; BODE: body mass index, obstruction, dyspnoea, exercise capacity; PD: post-bronchodilator; GOLD: Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; LAA%: percentage of low-attenuation areas; CVD: cardiovascular disease; MFAP4: microfibrillar-associated protein 4; IL: interleukin; FVC: forced vital capacity; Δ: change in; PD15: provocative dose causing a 15% fall in FEV1; ns: nonsignificant. #: n=966; : n=629; +: n=367; §: odds ratio (not β-coefficient).