TABLE 3

Adjusted odds of respiratory symptoms and difference in lung function measures by snoring and nocturnal gastro-oesophageal reflux (nGOR)

Only snoringOnly nGORSnoring and nGOR
Respiratory symptoms OR (95% CI)
 Wheeze#1.35 (1.08–1.68)*1.72 (1.23–2.39)*1.47 (0.74–2.92)
 Nocturnal chest tightness#1.55 (1.26–1.89)*2.03 (1.44–2.85)*2.95 (1.63–5.34)*
 Breathlessness at rest#1.62 (1.33–1.98)*2.00 (1.22–3.25)*1.65 (0.85–3.18)
 Breathlessness after effort#1.33 (1.04–1.71)*1.24 (1.02–1.50)*1.88 (1.20–2.95)*
 Nocturnal breathlessness#1.78 (1.35–2.37)*2.18 (1.40–3.39)*3.20 (2.17–4.72)*
 Nocturnal cough#1.42 (1.19–1.70)*2.14 (1.52–3.01)*2.68 (1.75–4.10)*
 Morning cough#1.36 (1.09–1.70)*2.31 (1.62–3.28)*1.50 (0.69–3.25)
 Morning phlegm#1.44 (1.10–1.88)*1.45 (1.03–2.04)*3.75 (2.40–5.84)*
Spirometry data estimate (95% CI)   
 Pre-bronchodilator FEV1 % pred−1.62 (−3.15– −0.88)*−1.70 (−3.85–0.45)−1.11 (−5.07–2.86)
 Pre-bronchodilator FVC % pred−1.44 (−2.78– −0.10)*−1.37 (−3.86–1.12)0.42 (−3.17–4.01)
 Pre-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC+−0.16 (−0.64–0.31)0.26 (−0.30–0.82)−0.44 (−2.11–1.24)
 Post-bronchodilator FEV1 % pred−1.01 (−2.54–0.51)−1.54 (−3.53–0.46)−0.64 (−5.63–4.36)
 Post-bronchodilator FVC % pred−0.90 (−2.23–0.43)−1.23 (−3.52–1.06)−0.19 (−3.52–3.30)
 Post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC+−0.19 (−0.72–0.35)0.16 (−0.78–1.11)−0.59 (−3.09–1.91)
 Reversibility of FEV1 %+0.43 (0.05–0.81)*0.39 (−0.33–1.10)0.28 (−0.88–1.44)

Without snoring or nGOR as reference group. FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC: forced vital capacity. #: adjusted for body mass index (BMI), current smoking status, pack-years, sex, age and centre; : adjusted for BMI, pack-years and centre; +: adjusted for BMI, pack-years, sex, age and centre. *: p<0.05.