TABLE 2

Patient baseline characterisation, matched

LAMA/LABA (n=466)Triple therapy (n=1181)p-valueSMD
Age years69.2±10.7/70.0 (15.0)69.4±10.2/69.0 (14.0)0.6722.0
 ≥40– <60 years92 (19.7%)194 (16.4%)0.2786.8
 ≥60– <80 years295 (63.3%)778 (65.9%)
 ≥80 years79 (17.0%)209 (17.7%)
Males233 (50.0%)603 (51.1%)0.6992.1
Index year2013.2±3.4/2014.0 (5.0)2012.5±2.9/2013.0 (4.0)<0.00121.8
BMI n (% nonmissing)463 (99.4%)1167 (98.8%)0.5067.5
 <18.5 kg·m−222 (4.8%)69 (5.9%)
 ≥18.5– <25 kg·m−2145 (31.3%)397 (34.0%)
 ≥25– <30 kg·m−2159 (34.3%)376 (32.2%)
 ≥30 kg·m−2137 (29.6%)325 (27.8%)
Current smoker
 No256 (54.9%)653 (55.3%)0.8960.7
 Yes210 (45.1%)528 (44.7%)
Asthma diagnosis, ever38 (8.2%)153 (13.0%)0.00615.7
Charlson Comorbidity Index
 ≤1333 (71.5%)845 (71.5%)0.9990.1
 2–476 (16.3%)190 (16.1%)
 5–926 (5.6%)67 (5.7%)
 ≥1031 (6.7%)79 (6.7%)
Blood eosinophil count n (% nonmissing)391 (83.9%)983 (83.2%)0.8082.2
 <0.05×109 cells per L8 (2.0%)31 (3.2%)
 0.05–0.14×109 cells per L110 (28.1%)267 (27.2%)
 0.15–0.24×109 cells per L110 (28.1%)281 (28.6%)
 0.25–0.34×109 cells per L80 (20.5%)187 (19.0%)
 0.3–0.44×109 cells per L27 (6.9%)86 (8.7%)
 0.4–0.54×109 cells per L23 (5.9%)54 (5.5%)
 0.5–0.64×109 cells per L10 (2.6%)30 (3.1%)
 ≥0.65×109 cells per L23 (5.9%)47 (4.8%)
SABA prescriptions
 063 (13.5%)237 (20.1%)0.0218.1
 1–2103 (22.1%)235 (19.9%)
 3–5100 (21.5%)220 (18.6%)
 6–9108 (23.2%)241 (20.4%)
 ≥1092 (19.7%)248 (21.0%)
Salbutamol-equivalent average daily SABA dose
 0 μg63 (13.5%)237 (20.1%)0.0338.9
 1–100 μg48 (10.3%)110 (9.3%)
 101–200 μg83 (17.8%)189 (16.0%)
 201–300 μg58 (12.4%)110 (9.3%)
 301–400 μg41 (8.8%)102 (8.6%)
 >400 μg173 (37.1%)433 (36.7%)
SAMA prescriptions
 0415 (89.1%)1044 (88.4%)0.9821.6
 111 (2.4%)31 (2.6%)
 27 (1.5%)19 (1.6%)
 ≥333 (7.1%)87 (7.4%)
LAMA prescriptions
 0139 (29.8%)343 (29.0%)0.00113.9
 1–389 (19.1%)213 (18.0%)
 4–681 (17.4%)135 (11.4%)
 7–956 (12.0%)124 (10.5%)
 10–1263 (13.5%)216 (18.3%)
 ≥1338 (8.2%)150 (12.7%)
Average daily OCS dose
 <2.5 mg379 (81.3%)983 (83.2%)0.4331.2
 ≥2.5– <5 mg52 (11.2%)112 (9.5%)
 ≥5– <7.5 mg18 (3.9%)31 (2.6%)
 ≥7.5 mg16 (3.4%)49 (4.1%)
 5 mg0 (0.0%)4 (0.3%)
 6 mg1 (0.2%)2 (0.2%)
Acute respiratory events in baseline year#
 022 (4.7%)53 (4.5%)0.7975.0
 148 (10.3%)116 (9.8%)
 290 (19.3%)200 (16.9%)
 396 (20.6%)256 (21.7%)
 ≥4210 (45.1%)556 (47.1%)
Exacerbations in baseline year#
 2287 (61.6%)698 (59.1%)0.7183.4
 3105 (22.5%)284 (24.0%)
 434 (7.3%)101 (8.6%)
 ≥540 (8.6%)98 (8.3%)
Acute OCS courses in baseline year#
 095 (20.4%)234 (19.8%)0.7001.7
 1117 (25.1%)328 (27.8%)
 ≥2254 (54.5%)619 (52.4%)
Antibiotic courses in baseline year#
 080 (17.2%)202 (17.1%)0.6272.9
 1115 (24.7%)296 (25.1%)
 2183 (39.3%)435 (36.8%)
 363 (13.5%)165 (14.0%)
 413 (2.8%)55 (4.7%)
 ≥512 (2.6%)28 (2.4%)
GOLD severity (% nonmissing)373 (80.0%)957 (81.0%)0.3948.0
 Mild, FEV1 >80% predicted44 (11.8%)105 (11.0%)
 Moderate, FEV1 50–80% predicted190 (50.9%)447 (46.7%)
 Severe, FEV1 30–50% predicted94 (25.2%)281 (29.4%)
 Very severe, FEV1 <30% predicted45 (12.1%)124 (13.0%)
GOLD risk group n (% nonmissing)389 (83.5%)976 (82.6%)0.1877.9
 C236 (60.7%)554 (56.8%)
 D153 (39.3%)422 (43.2%)
mMRC score n (% nonmissing)389 (83.5%)976 (82.6%)0.6715.7
 0, not troubled by breathlessness37 (9.5%)98 (10.0%)
 1, short of breath199 (51.2%)456 (46.7%)
 2, slower in walking96 (24.7%)266 (27.3%)
 3, stopping for breath49 (12.6%)131 (13.4%)
 4, too breathless to leave the house8 (2.1%)25 (2.6%)

Data are presented as mean±sd/median (interquartile range) unless otherwise stated. LAMA: long-acting muscarinic antagonist; LABA: long-acting inhaled β-agonist; SMD: standardised mean difference; IQR: interquartile range; BMI: body mass index; SABA: short-acting inhaled β-agonist; SAMA: short-acting muscarinic antagonist; LAMA: long-acting muscarinic antagonist; OCS: oral corticosteroid; GOLD: Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; mMRC: modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale. #includes the index date; : symptom and risk based. p-values are for the Kruskal–Wallis equality-of-populations rank test or Pearson's Chi-squared test of independent categories, where appropriate.