Model 1: independent predictors for a decision for (or against) noninvasive ventilation (NIV)

OR for NIV (95% CI)p-value
 Geriatric or palliative careReference
 Intensive care unit14.9 (1.87–118.8)0.011
 Pulmonology or internal medicine9.4 (1.14–78.42)0.038
Physician recommends living will#0.57 (0.34–0.97)0.038
Age of the physician (per year)0.96 (0.92–1.00)0.052

Odds ratios were obtained by multivariable logistic regression. OR >1 shows a higher probability for NIV. #: physicians with a positive answer to: “Do you advise patients with a foreseeably severe disease progression and/or limited life expectancy to draw up a living will?”.