TABLE 1

Baseline characteristics in older (age ≥65 years) versus younger (18–64 years) patients with tuberculosis (TB)

Younger patients (18–64 years)Older patients (≥65 years)p-value
Patients679344
Age years31 (26–42)73 (69–78)
Sex0.13
 Female261 (38.4)149 (43.3)
 Male418 (61.6)195 (56.7)
Ethnicity0.001
 Afghani11 (1.6)9 (2.6)
 Black89 (13.1)44 (12.8)
 Indian437 (64.4)193 (56.1)
 Nepalese25 (3.7)6 (1.7)
 Pakistani32 (4.7)14 (4.1)
 Sri Lankan17 (2.5)11 (3.2)
 White42 (6.2)53 (15.4)
 Other26 (3.8)14 (4.1)
UK born56 (8.2)39 (11.4)0.10
HIV positive12 (2.8) n=4311 (0.9) n=1120.24
Site of TB
 Pulmonary243 (35.8)169 (49.1)
 Extrapulmonary436 (64.2)175 (50.8)0.001
  Pleural74 (10.9)45 (13.1)0.30
  Intrathoracic lymph node117 (17.2)46 (13.4)0.11
  Extrathoracic lymph node218 (32.1)63 (18.3)0.001
  Gastrointestinal49 (7.2)20 (5.8)0.39
  Central nervous system20 (3.0)11 (3.2)0.82
  Spinal46 (6.8)27 (7.9)0.53
  Miliary13 (1.9)15 (4.4)0.02
Culture results
M. tuberculosis culture positive  (all cases)388 (65.4)177 (61.0)0.20
M. tuberculosis culture positive  (PTB)162 (73.0)100 (69.0)0.41
 Smear positive (PTB)67 (29.1)33 (25.0)0.40
Biochemistry
 ESR mm·h−133 (13–67) n=27328 (18–72) n=2050.04
 Albumin g·L−137 (31–39) n=31833 (28–39) n=287<0.001
 ALT IU·L−121 (14–36) n=31719 (12–29) n=2870.007
 ALT >50 IU·L−141 (12.9) n=31734 (9.9) n=345
 ALP IU·L−191 (77–112) n=31896 (79–128) n=2870.005
 Bilirubin µM·L−18 (6–11) n=3128 (6–12) n=2850.77
 Sodium mmol·L−1138 (136–140) n=317137 (133–140) n=2860.001
 Creatinine µM·L−163 (57–69) n=31786 (68–105) n=286<0.001
 Creatinine >112 µM·L−13 (0.9) n=31871 (22.2) n=320<0.05
 Vitamin D nmol·L−11 (1–8) n=2756 (1–31) n=2050.001
 Vitamin D >50 nmol·L−11 (0.4) n=27536 (17.6) n=2050.001

Data are presented as n, median (interquartile range) or n (%), unless otherwise stated. M. tuberculosis: Mycobacterium tuberculosis; PTB: pulmonary TB; ESR: erythrocyte sedimentation rate; ALT: alanine aminotransferase; ALP: alkaline phosphatase.