TABLE 1

Comparison of propensity-matched atypical antipsychotic users and nonusers hospitalised with pneumonia

VariablesAtypical antipsychotics (N=5513)No atypical antipsychotics (N=5513)p-valueStandardised difference
Age groups0.60.02
 65–74 years2024 (36.7%)2011 (36.5%)
 75–84 years2427 (44.0%)2382 (43.2%)
 85–94 years1031 (18.7%)1085 (19.7%)
 95 years and above31 (0.6%)35 (0.6%)
Men5404 (98.0%)5399 (97.9%)0.7−0.006
White4485 (81.4%)4454 (81.0%)0.5−0.01
Black641 (11.6%)678 (12.3%)0.30.02
Hispanic685 (12.4%)684 (12.4%)0.9−0.0005
Nursing home residence165 (3.0%)153 (2.8%)0.5−0.01
VA priority group0.4−0.02
 Group 11876 (34.0%)1895 (34.4%)
 Groups 2–63303 (60.0%)3318 (60.2%)
 Groups 7–8334 (6.0%)300 (5.4%)
Primary care visits in the year prior5.4±5.15.4±4.60.6−0.01
Intensive care unit admission867 (15.7%)837 (15.2%)0.4−0.02
Invasive mechanical ventilation333 (6.0%)341 (6.2%)0.80.006
Vasopressors275 (5.0%)280 (5.1%)0.80.004
Inpatient guideline concordant antibiotics#4334 (78.6%)4343 (78.8%)0.80.004
Tobacco use/cessation2330 (42.3%)2278 (41.3%)0.3−0.02
Alcohol abuse504 (9.1%)499 (9.1%)0.9−0.003
Illicit drug abuse219 (4.0%)203 (3.7%)0.4−0.02
Myocardial infarction375 (6.8%)395 (7.2%)0.50.01
Heart failure1221 (22.2%)1251 (22.7%)0.50.01
Peripheral vascular disease737 (13.4%)756 (13.7%)0.60.01
COPD2567 (46.6%)2515 (45.6%)0.3−0.01
Stroke1367 (24.8%)1406 (25.5%)0.40.01
Rheumatologic disease93 (1.7%)102 (1.9%)0.50.002
Mild liver disease47 (0.9%)40 (0.7%)0.5−0.003
Peptic ulcer disease178 (3.2%)180 (3.3%)0.90.002
Dementia1146 (21.0%)1111 (20.1%)0.4−0.01
Diabetes1827 (33.1%)1845 (33.5%)0.70.007
Diabetes with complications554 (10.1%)572 (10.4%)0.60.01
Moderate liver disease21 (0.4%)20 (0.4%)0.9−0.01
Renal disease782 (14.2%)804 (14.6%)0.6−0.009
Any prior malignancy996 (18.1%)977 (17.7%)0.6−0.009
Metastatic solid tumour148 (2.7%)250 (2.7%)0.90.002
Hematologic malignancy77 (1.4%)73 (1.3%)0.7−0.006
HIV4 (0.1%)4 (0.1%)1.00.00
Psychiatric conditions1.09±0.981.10±1.00.330.02
Prior outpatient antibiotics1445 (26.2%)1458 (26.5%)0.80.005
Antidepressants3049 (55.3%)2922 (53.0%)0.1−0.04
Lithium49 (0.9%)46 (0.8%)0.8−0.006
Statins1935 (35.0%)1968 (35.5%)0.40.01
ARB226 (4.1%)220 (4.0%)0.99−0.004
ACE inhibitors1745 (31.6%)1768 (32.0%)0.90.009
Antiarrhythmics133 (2.4%)137 (2.5%)0.60.006
Β-blockers1910 (34.6%)1851 (33.6%)0.4−0.02
Calcium channel blockers1255 (22.8%)1261 (22.9%)0.70.002
Oral antidiabetics654 (11.9%)608 (11.0%)0.2−0.02
Other lipid-lowering medications244 (0.05%)252 (0.05%)0.80.007
Other antihypertensive medications1206 (21.9%)1207 (21.9%)0.8−0.002
Inhaled β-agonists1670 (30.2%)1603 (29.0%)0.1−0.008
Other inhaled medications1617 (29.3%)1575 (28.1%)0.4−0.0003
Theophylline93 (1.7%)89 (1.6%)0.8−0.006

Data are presented as mean±sd or n (%) unless otherwise stated. VA: Dept of Veterans Affairs; ARB: angiotensin II receptor blocker; ACE: angiotensin-converting enzyme. #: concordant with 2007 American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America clinical practice guideline for community-acquired pneumonia [26]. : Selim psychiatric conditions.