TABLE 1

Demographic and clinical characteristics of cases and controls

CasesControlsp-value
Subjects80160
Demographics
 Male48 (60.0)96 (60.0)1.000
 Remote residence childhood53 (93.0)82 (85.4)0.237
 Remote residence adulthood48 (60.0)99 (61.9)0.449
 Tobacco#51 (63.8)114 (71.3)0.237
 Alcohol54 (67.5)103 (64.4)0.631
Comorbidities
 COPD+8 (10.0)6 (3.8)0.051
 Asthma§1 (1.3)0 (0.0)0.333
 Heart disease19 (23.8)38 (23.8)1.000
  CCF7 (8.8)11 (6.9)0.603
  IHD11 (13.8)22 (13.8)1.000
  RHD1 (1.3)5 (3.1)0.380
 Diabetes23 (28.8)67 (41.9)0.048
 Chronic kidney diseaseƒ11 (13.8)38 (23.8)0.161
 Chronic liver disease9 (11.3)5 (3.1)0.011
HTLV-1 infection
 HTLV-1 infected##42 (52.5)53 (33.1)0.004
 HTLV-1 PVL copies per 105 PBLs213.8 (19.7–3776)26.6 (0.9–361)0.002
Admission details¶¶
 Childhood admissions
  Any admission++55 (68.8)72 (45.0)0.035
  Any LRTI admission§§40 (50.0)52 (32.5)0.009
  ICU LRTI admissions0.04±0.190.01±0.110.317
  LRTI admissions1 (0–3)1 (0–2)0.041
 Adulthood admissions
  Any admission++49 (61.3)68 (42.5)0.005
  Any LRTI admission§§49 (61.3)67 (41.9)0.005
  ICU LRTI admissions0.14±0.470.06±0.330.1166
  LRTI admissions4 (1–10)0 (0–1)<0.001
 Severe LRTIƒƒ21 (26.3)3 (1.9)<0.001
 Mortality
  Died31 (38.8)18 (11.3)<0.001
  Age at death years50 (36–59)58.5 (44–63)0.0579

Data are presented as n, n (%), median (interquartile range) or mean±sd, unless otherwise stated. COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CCF: congestive cardiac failure; IHD: ischaemic heart disease; RHD: rheumatic heart disease; HTLV-1: human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1; PVL: pro-viral load; PBL: peripheral blood leukocyte; LRTI: lower respiratory tract infection; ICU: intensive care unit. #: any history of tobacco smoking recorded in medical records; : any history of harmful alcohol use recorded in medical records; +: history of COPD recorded in case notes with chest radiography findings consistent with this diagnosis (prior to bronchiectasis diagnosis for cases); §: clinical diagnosis of asthma recorded in case notes with an increased forced expiratory volume in 1 s >12% and >200 mL after administration of bronchodilators; ƒ: stage ≥2; ##: HTLV-1 Western blot or HTLV-1c PCR positive; ¶¶: prior to diagnosis for cases and to time of recruitment for controls; ++: admission for any reason; §§: admission for LRTI; ƒƒ: LRTI due to severe pneumonia, severe bronchiolitis or tuberculosis at any age (see Methods).