Predictors of any death among cases and their controls

Unadjusted OR (95% CI)p-valueAdjusted OR (95% CI)p-value
Male1.61 (0.82–3.15)0.169
HTLV-1 infected#1.00 (0.52–1.90)1.000
HTLV-1 infection (categorical)
 Low HTLV-1 PVL0.75 (0.35–1.62)0.4672.27 (0.93–5.54)0.071
 High HTLV-1 PVL3.21 (1.28–8.08)0.0133.69 (1.11–12.27)0.033
Age+1.20 (1.07–1.35)0.0021.15 (1.00–1.32)0.051
Remote residence§0.68 (0.30–1.55)0.354
Bronchiectasis4.73 (2.43–9.23)<0.0014.27 (2.04–8.94)<0.001
COPDƒ6.20 (2.04–18.85)0.0013.97 (1.06–14.87)0.040
CCF2.81 (1.03–7.69)0.0442.27 (0.73–7.03)0.155
IHD1.93 (0.85–4.40)0.116
RHD0.80 (0.09–6.97)0.837
Diabetes0.89 (0.46–1.73)0.739
Haemodialysis##0.85 (0.23–3.08)0.802
Chronic liver disease1.10 (0.29–4.10)0.891
Malignancy2.74 (0.44–16.87)0.277
Alcohol¶¶0.96 (0.49–1.85)0.892
Tobacco++1.13 (0.57–2.26)0.728
Eosinophilia§§2.17 (1.15–4.13)0.018
Strongyloidesƒƒ1.36 (0.68–2.72)0.380
Bronchiectasis complications
 Respiratory failure12.01 (4.55–31.71)<0.001
 Right heart failure5.73 (1.24–26.52)0.026
 Haemoptysis4.27 (1.03–17.75)0.046

HTLV-1: human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1; PVL: pro-viral load; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CCF: congestive cardiac failure; IHD: ischaemic heart disease; RHD: rheumatic heart disease. 31 cases and 18 controls died during follow-up. 28 cases, but no controls, died as a result of respiratory disease. Major causes of death among controls were cardiovascular disease (n=7), malignancy (n=3) and nonrespiratory sepsis (n=3). #: HTLV-1 Western blot or HTLV-1c PCR positive; : stratified by HTLV-1 PVL (low HTLV-1 PVL, <1000 copies per 105 peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs); high HTLV-1 PVL, ≥1000 copies per 105 PBLs); +: risk per 5 years; §: documented residence >80 km from Alice Springs in adulthood; ƒ: diagnosis recorded in case notes with chest radiography findings consistent with diagnosis (cases diagnosed before bronchiectasis, controls to date of recruitment); ##: six cases (HTLV-1+ n=3) and 12 controls (HTLV-1+ n=5) were receiving haemodialysis at time of recruitment; ¶¶: any history of harmful alcohol consumption recorded in case notes; ++: any history of tobacco smoking recorded in case notes; §§: peripheral blood eosinophilia recorded on at least two occasions 12 months apart (prior to diagnosis for cases); ƒƒ: Strongyloides seropositive or larvae identified in stool at any time prior to date of recruitment.