Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals of re-hospitalisation for COPD exacerbation or death after 1–2 propensity score (PS) matching and stabilised inverse probability weighting (IPTW) in the inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) withdrawal group versus the control group

Re-hospitalisation or death
Study populationICS withdrawalControlHR (95% CI)p-value
1–2 PS matchingAll90418080.65 (0.52–0.80)<0.001
Comorbid asthma3306840.67 (0.50–0.91)0.010
Without asthma57411240.68 (0.51–0.90)0.008
Stabilised IPTWAll83526210.71 (0.56–0.90)0.005
Comorbid asthma48115130.82 (0.57–1.18)0.294
Without asthma35311080.58 (0.45–0.75)<0.001