TABLE 2

Comorbidities during hospitalisation and treatments for COPD with and without inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) withdrawal, before and after 1–2 propensity score (PS) matching and after stabilised inverse probability weighting (IPTW)

All patients1–2 PS matchingStabilised IPTW
ICS withdrawal (n=971) ×100Control (n=2764) ×100smdICS withdrawal (n=904) ×100Control (n=1808) ×100smdICS withdrawal (n=872) ×100Control (n=2591) ×100smd
Comorbidity
 Lung cancer0.14%0.08%16.8%0.14%0.14%−0.2%0.12%0.11%3.9%
 Other malignancy0.10%0.07%12.5%0.10%0.11%−2.2%0.08%0.08%−1.1%
 Diabetes/abnormal glucose tolerance0.21%0.22%−2.4%0.21%0.22%−3.5%0.27%0.22%11.5%
 Bone fracture/osteoporosis0.06%0.07%−2.1%0.06%0.07%−4.0%0.05%0.07%−4.7%
 Interstitial pneumonia0.11%0.05%24.5%0.11%0.11%−0.9%0.07%0.07%2.6%
 Bronchial asthma0.37%0.66%−61.0%0.37%0.39%−4.6%0.58%0.58%−0.2%
 Bronchiectasis0.24%0.22%4.2%0.24%0.21%7.2%0.22%0.22%−0.6%
 Pneumothorax0.04%0.03%3.1%0.04%0.04%−2.6%0.04%0.03%1.6%
 Pulmonary thromboembolism0.00%0.01%3.8%0.00%0.00%4.7%0.01%0.01%−0.2%
Mycobacterium infection0.02%0.01%10.9%0.02%0.02%2.6%0.01%0.01%−0.5%
 Mycotic infection0.02%0.02%0.6%0.02%0.03%−6.5%0.02%0.02%−1.7%
 Cor pulmonale0.02%0.02%2.2%0.02%0.02%−0.8%0.02%0.02%0.7%
 Congestive heart failure0.21%0.22%−0.8%0.21%0.20%2.9%0.22%0.22%0.2%
 Ischaemic heart disease0.14%0.14%1.8%0.14%0.14%−0.3%0.17%0.14%9.6%
 Tachycardia0.11%0.10%3.8%0.11%0.11%1.1%0.11%0.10%0.5%
 Autoimmune disease0.04%0.03%7.5%0.04%0.05%5.0%0.03%0.03%1.2%
 Stroke0.03%0.02%5.0%0.03%0.03%−0.3%0.02%0.03%−1.5%
 Liver dysfunction0.03%0.02%5.3%0.03%0.05%−9.2%0.03%0.03%0.7%
 Renal failure0.04%0.03%5.2%0.04%0.05%−2.4%0.03%0.03%−1.6%
 GORD0.19%0.22%−6.9%0.19%0.22%−5.9%0.23%0.23%0.4%
 Constipation or ileus0.17%0.15%4.6%0.17%0.16%1.9%0.20%0.16%11.2%
 Prostate hypertrophy0.11%0.10%3.7%0.11%0.10%4.5%0.10%0.10%−1.1%
Treatment, categorical data
Before hospitalisation
 Home ventilatory support0.02%0.02%−0.3%0.02%0.02%0.8%0.03%0.02%5.9%
 Home oxygen therapy0.25%0.29%−9.3%0.25%0.24%0.8%0.29%0.28%2.5%
 Both LAMAs and LABAs0.24%0.20%8.3%0.24%0.24%−1.3%0.24%0.22%4.8%
 LAMAs only0.58%0.67%−17.4%0.58%0.59%−0.6%0.64%0.65%−1.6%
 LABAs only0.46%0.36%20.7%0.46%0.47%−2.3%0.42%0.40%5.4%
 SABAs or SAMAs0.43%0.56%−27.2%0.43%0.44%−2.0%0.54%0.51%5.5%
 Theophylline0.32%0.47%−31.2%0.32%0.33%−0.5%0.45%0.43%4.6%
 Expectorants0.75%0.76%−1.9%0.75%0.74%1.5%0.71%0.75%−9.2%
 Antibiotic prescriptions per 30 days0.23%0.31%−11.9%0.23%0.20%5.0%0.26%0.28%−2.8%
 Macrolides per 30 days0.11%0.19%−19.4%0.11%0.09%8.6%0.14%0.16%−5.2%
 TMP/SMX combination per 30 days0.03%0.02%4.5%0.03%0.02%4.2%0.02%0.02%−2.0%
 Anti-MRSA drugs per 30 days0.00%0.00%5.5%0.00%0.00%2.4%0.00%0.00%1.5%
 Antifungal agent per 30 days0.00%0.00%−0.9%0.00%0.00%−2.8%0.00%0.00%−0.6%
 Medication for influenza per 30 days0.00%0.00%−3.6%0.00%0.00%−2.5%0.00%0.00%−0.0%
 Oral corticosteroids per 30 days0.10%0.18%−15.8%0.10%0.09%3.1%0.15%0.16%−1.6%
i.v. corticosteroids per 30 days0.06%0.13%−14.3%0.06%0.07%−3.7%0.10%0.11%−2.3%
At and during hospitalisation
 Ambulance transport0.22%0.23%−1.7%0.22%0.21%4.4%0.21%0.23%−4.2%
 ICU admission0.01%0.02%−6.1%0.01%0.02%−4.6%0.02%0.03%−1.4%
 Corticosteroids0.37%0.58%−41.8%0.37%0.38%−1.8%0.50%0.52%−3.8%
 Aminoglycosides0.01%0.01%−2.6%0.01%0.01%−3.4%0.01%0.01%−2.4%
 Carbapenems0.13%0.13%0.9%0.13%0.14%−2.6%0.14%0.13%2.3%
 Anti-MRSA drugs0.02%0.01%6.8%0.02%0.03%−2.1%0.03%0.02%8.2%
 Macrolides0.24%0.33%−22.1%0.24%0.23%2.4%0.29%0.30%−2.2%
 Fluoroquinolones0.29%0.31%−3.3%0.29%0.28%2.3%0.30%0.30%−0.8%
 Mechanical ventilation0.06%0.06%−0.6%0.06%0.07%−4.3%0.08%0.07%5.9%
 Haemodialysis0.01%0.01%4.6%0.01%0.01%3.0%0.01%0.01%−1.2%
 Nasal tube feeding0.02%0.01%7.2%0.02%0.01%1.3%0.02%0.01%7.2%
 Surgery under general anaesthesia0.00%0.00%−1.6%0.00%0.00%6.3%0.00%0.00%−2.8%
 Prescription of LABAs/LAMAs0.05%0.01%25.7%0.05%0.05%0.0%0.02%0.02%−0.9%
 Prescription of LAMAs0.24%0.60%−77.3%0.24%0.25%−1.0%0.25%0.22%7.7%
 Prescription of LABAs0.26%0.19%16.9%0.26%0.27%−2.6%0.49%0.50%−1.1%
 Discharge to home0.92%0.97%−22.8%0.92%0.91%4.0%0.95%0.95%0.8%
Treatment, numerical dataMean±sdMean±sdMean±sdMean±sdMean±sdMean±sd
Length of stay days19.3±20.019.3±15.91.719.4±20.319.9±14.2−2.920.0±21.419.4±15.33.7

smd: standardised mean difference; GORD: gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; LAMA: long-acting muscarinic antagonist; LABA: long-acting β2-agonist; SABA: short-acting β2-agonist; SAMA: short-acting muscarinic antagonist; TMP/SMX: trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole; MSRA: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; ICU: intensive care unit.