Multivariable linear mixed effect models of the interaction between baseline characteristics and time on change in ADO (age, dyspnoea, airflow obstruction) score per year: baseline adjustment (n=4363)

Characteristics interacting with timeβ (95% CI)p-value
Baseline ADO score−0.0397 (−0.0437– −0.0357)<0.001
Number of ADO measurements0.0178 (0.0080–0.0276)<0.001
Age at baseline years−0.0001 (−0.0010–0.0008)0.885
mMRC score at baseline−0.0446 (−0.0530– −0.0362)<0.001
FEV1 % pred at baseline0.0026 (0.0022–0.0031)<0.001
Townsend quintile0.0062 (0.0001–0.0123)0.045
Female sex0.0001 (−0.0164–0.0168)0.982
Heart failure (any time)−0.0044 (−0.0413–0.0327)0.817
Ischaemic heart disease (any time)−0.0001 (−0.0211–0.0208)0.989
Asthma (any time)−0.0035 (−0.0206–0.0136)0.688
Anxiety (3 years prior)−0.0191 (−0.0770–0.0389)0.519
Depression (3 years prior)0.0384 (0.0054–0.0713)0.022
Diabetes (any time)−0.0084 (−0.0346–0.0178)0.531
TIA, stroke or PAD (any time)−0.0035 (−0.0288–0.0217)0.783
LAMA prescription (1 year prior)0.0236 (0.0045–0.0427)0.016
LABA prescription (1 year prior)0.0186 (0.0008–0.0365)0.041
SAMA prescription (1 year prior)0.0195 (−0.0019–0.0409)0.075
SABA prescription (1 year prior)0.0137 (−0.0031–0.0306)0.111
ICS-containing prescription (1 year prior)0.0189 (0.0017–0.0361)0.031
Pulmonary rehabilitation referral (1 year prior)0.0029 (−0.0372–0.0430)0.886
BMI category (most recent status)
 Underweight0.0411 (−0.0175–0.0996)0.169
 Overweight−0.0347 (−0.0544– −0.0150)0.001
 Obese−0.0412 (−0.0625– −0.0198)<0.001
Smoking status (most recent status)
 Ex-smoker0.0282 (0.0025–0.0539)0.032
 Current smoker0.0588 (0.0311–0.0866)<0.001

mMRC: modified Medical Research Council; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; TIA: transient ischaemic attack; PAD: peripheral artery disease; LAMA: long-acting muscarinic antagonist; LABA: long-acting β2-agonist; SAMA: short-acting muscarinic antagonist; SABA: short-acting β2-agonist; ICS: inhaled corticosteroid; BMI: body mass index.