Multivariable Cox regression model showing the adjusted hazard ratio for the change in ADO (age, dyspnoea, airflow obstruction) score (calculated within each individual) per year and mortality (n=4793)

HR (95% CI)p-value
Change in ADO score over time (per 1 point increase per year)2.00 (1.59–2.52)<0.001
Baseline ADO Score (per 1 point increase)1.28 (1.10–1.50)0.002
Age at baseline (per 1 year increase)1.03 (1.00–1.05)0.074
mMRC at baseline (per 1 point increase)1.18 (1.03–1.36)0.017
FEV1 % pred (per 1 percentage point increase)0.99 (0.98–1.01)0.277
Number of ADO measurements (per measurement)0.79 (0.65–0.95)0.010
Female sex0.88 (0.71–1.10)0.262
BMI category#
 Underweight1.71 (1.16–2.51)0.006
 Overweight0.63 (0.49–0.80)<0.001
 Obese0.62 (0.47–0.83)<0.001
Smoking status#
 Ex-smoker1.08 (0.79–1.48)0.626
 Current smoker1.27 (0.87–1.83)0.148
Presence of heart failure#1.60 (1.19–2.14)0.002
Presence of ischaemic heart disease#1.26 (1.00–1.58)0.054
Presence of diabetes mellitus#0.98 (0.74–1.30)0.873
Presence of TIA, stroke or PAD#1.24 (0.97–1.58)0.092
Presence of asthma#1.01 (0.82–1.26)0.898

mMRC: modified Medical Research Council; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; BMI: body mass index; TIA: transient ischaemic attack; PAD: peripheral arterial disease. The proportional hazards assumption for serial ADO scores was not violated (p=0.7214). The median (interquartile range) time between the first and final ADO score was 3.54 (2.71–4.45) years. #: most recent status prior to the last ADO score measurement.