Basilar | Non-basilar | Peel | Core | Basilar peel | Basilar core | |||||||

Change per doubling HAA % | p-value | Change per doubling HAA % | p-value | Change per doubling HAA % | p-value | Change per doubling HAA % | p-value | Change per doubling HAA % | p-value | Change per doubling HAA % | p-value | |

MMP-7 | 6.6 (2.6–10.8) | 0.001 | 6.4 (2.5–10.4) | 0.001 | 5.9 (2.2–9.8) | 0.002 | 10.3 (4.7–16.3) | <0.001 | 5.8 (2.2–9.6) | 0.002 | 3.8 (0.8–7.0) | 0.01 |

IL-6 | 4.9 (1.5–8.4) | 0.005 | 10.3 (6.5–14.2) | <0.001 | 7.3 (4.0–10.6) | <0.001 | 9.1 (4.0–14.4) | <0.001 | 5.5 (2.4–8.6) | <0.001 | 1.5 (−0.9–4.0) | 0.220 |

SP-A | 4.9 (−1.1–11.3) | 0.113 | 2.7 (−3.0–8.8) | 0.362 | 5.2 (−0.5–11.1) | 0.073 | 8.7 (0.2–17.8) | 0.04 | 4.2 (−1.3–10.0) | 0.140 | −0.1 (−4.7–4.8) | 0.973 |

Change per doubling HAA mL | p-value | Change per doubling HAA mL | p-value | Change per doubling HAA mL | p-value | Change per doubling HAA mL | p-value | Change per doubling HAA mL | p-value | Change per doubling HAA mL | p-value | |

FVC | −28 (−57–0) | 0.051 | −113 (−151–−75) | <0.001 | −26 (−58–5) | 0.099 | −186 (−226–−145) | <0.001 | −15 (−42–12) | 0.226 | −115 (−142–−88) | <0.001 |

OR per doubling HAA | p-value | OR per doubling HAA | p-value | OR per doubling HAA | p-value | OR per doubling HAA | p-value | OR per doubling HAA | p-value | OR per doubling HAA | p-value | |

ILA | 2.20 (1.66–2.90) | <0.001 | 1.54 (1.17–2.02) | 0.002 | 1.79 (1.40–2.30) | <0.001 | 1.52 (1.04–2.24) | 0.03 | 1.87 (1.45–2.39) | <0.001 | 1.42 (1.14–1.76) | 0.001 |

Hazard ratio per doubling HAA | p Value | Hazard ratio per doubling HAA | p Value | Hazard ratio per doubling HAA | p Value | Hazard ratio per doubling HAA | p Value | Hazard ratio per doubling HAA | p Value | Hazard ratio per doubling HAA | p Value | |

All-cause mortality | 1.25 (1.10–1.42) | <0.001 | 1.47 (1.29–1.66) | <0.001 | 1.41 (1.26–1.58) | <0.001 | 1.35 (1.13–1.62) | 0.001 | 1.21 (1.08–1.36) | 0.001 | 1.20 (1.09–1.32) | <0.001 |

ILD mortality^{#} | 3.98 (2.10–7.55) | <0.001 | 3.44 (2.13–5.56) | <0.001 | 3.94 (2.36–6.56) | <0.001 | 3.30 (1.83–5.93) | <0.001 | 3.89 (2.08–7.29) | <0.001 | 1.83 (0.97–3.46) | 0.061 |

Data are presented as mean (95% CI). All analyses adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, smoking status, pack–years, educational attainment, renal function, total volume of imaged lung (not in FVC analysis), percentage emphysema, mA dose and study site. HAA: high attenuation areas; MMP-7: matrix metalloproteinase-7; IL-6: interleukin-6; SP-A: surfactant protein-A; FVC: forced vital capacity; ILA: interstitial lung abnormalities. ^{#}: Adjusted for generalised propensity score, which includes age, sex, race/ethnicity, BMI, waist circumference, smoking status, pack-years, educational attainment, renal function, total volume of imaged lung, percentage emphysema, mA dose, study site, alcohol use, total intentional exercise (metabolic equivalent min·wk^{−1}), coronary artery calcium, diabetes medication use, insulin use, fasting glucose, hypertension, antihypertensive medication use, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, cholesterol medication use, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, C-reactive protein, d-dimer and cancer history.