TABLE 2

Patient characteristics and key clinical indicators

All SitesSite 1Site 2Site 3Site 4Site 5p-value
Patients n171468375030
Male sex86/171 (50.3%)24/46 (52.2%)5/8 (62.5%)18/37 (48.7%)22/50 (44.0%)17/30 (56.7%)0.761
Age years mean±sd70.2±9.969.6±9.571.8±8.769.9±11.270.5±9.670.6±10.40.976
Previous diagnosis COPD162/166 (97.6%)44/45 (97.8%)8/8 (100%)35/36 (97.2%)46/48 (95.8%)29/29 (100%)0.926
Caucasian163/169 (96.5%)44/46 (95.7%)8/8 (100%)37/37 (100%)46/48 (95.8%)28/30 (93.3%)0.650
Smoking status
 Current59/161 (36.7%)18/44 (40.9%)5/8 (62.5%)11/35 (31.4%)16/44 (36.4%)9/30 (30%)0.515ƒƒ
 Former99/161 (61.5%)26/44 (59.1%)3/8 (37.5%)24/35 (68.6%)26/44 (59.1%)20/30 (66.7%)
 Never3/161 (1.9%)0/44 (0%)0/8 (0%)0/35 (0%)2/44 (4.6%)1/30 (3.3%)
Living arrangements
 Residential care9/169 (5.3%)1/46 (2.2%)1/8 (12.5%)2/35 (5.7%)3/50 (6%)2/30 (6.7%)0.251ƒƒ
 Alone65/169 (38.5%)19/46 (41.3%)5/8 (62.5%)8/35 (22.9%)20/50 (40%)13/30 (43.3%)
 With someone95/169 (56.2%)26/46 (56.5%)2/8 (25%)25/35 (71.4%)27/50 (54%)15/30 (50%)
Comorbidities mean±sd3.7±2.03.7±1.82±1.4+4.6±2.2+3.4±1.8§3.5±2.0<0.05
 Hypertension83/171 (48.5%)18/46 (39.1%)2/8 (25%)16/37 (43.2%)28/50 (56%)19/30 (63.3%)0.109
 Gastrointestinal disease64/171 (37.4%)26/46 (56.5%)2/8 (25%)5/37 (13.5%)18/50 (36%)13/30 (43.3%)0.002
 Ischaemic heart disease49/170 (28.8%)14/46 (30.4%)1/8 (12.5%)10/37 (27%)12/49 (24.5%)12/30 (40%)0.489
Increasing breathlessness#165/169 (97.6%)46/46 (100%)8/8 (100%)35/36 (97.2%)49/50 (98%)27/29 (93.1%)0.402
Change in sputum colour#83/150 (55.3%)23/38 (60.5%)3/7 (42.9%)14/29 (48.3%)28/49 (57.1%)15/27 (55.6%)0.826
Respiratory rate on admission n (median, IQR)169 (24, 20–32)45 (26, 22–32)ƒ7 (20, 19–25)37 (24, 23–30)50 (26, 20–36)30 (22, 20–26)ƒ0.013
Previous admission for COPD109/148 (73.7%)25/40 (62.5%)4/4 (100%)22/28 (78.6%)35/48 (72.9%)23/28 (82.1%)0.314
Length of stay days median (IQR)6 (3–9)4 (2–6)##,¶¶12 (7–18)##6 (4–10)6.5 (4–9)¶¶6 (3–12)<0.001
COPD score at discharge n (mean±sd)158 (24.6±6.9)36 (24.0±6.1)7 (26.0±5.3)37 (22.9±7.8)48 (26.7±6.6)30 (23.6±6.7)0.100
COPD score on follow-up post-discharge n (mean±sd)126 (21.6±7.9)32 (24.4±7.0)++4 (27.5±5.4)27 (19.9±5.4)38 (22.9±8.6)§§25 (16.8±7.1)++,§§0.001
Discharged home on oxygen41/158 (26.0%)12/46 (26.1%)5/7 (71.4%)5/28 (17.9%)8/47 (17.0%)11/30 (36.7%)0.016
Readmission within 28 days36/142 (25.4%)12/45 (26.7%)2/5 (40%)7/20 (35.0%)8/42 (19.1%)7/30 (23.3%)0.638
Death during admission1/169 (0.6%)0/0 (0%)0/0 (0%)0/0 (0%)0/0 (0%)1/30 (3.3%)0.219
Death after discharge8/132 (6.1%)2/43 (4.7%)0/0 (%)2/21 (9.5%)2/42 (4.8%)2/24 (8.3%)0.781

Data are presented as n/N (%), where N is the number of data available for analysis and % are is documented values (unrecorded, unknown and undocumented values have been treated as missing values), unless otherwise stated. Data are calculated on 171 patients. IQR: interquartile range. #: prior to admission; : in previous 24 months. +: significant difference between sites 2 and 3 (p=0.006); §: significant difference between sites 3 and 4 (p=0.043); ƒ: significant difference between sites 1 and 5 (p=0.013); ##: significant difference between sites 1 and 2 (p≤0.001); ¶¶: significant difference between sites 1 and 4 (p≤0.001); ++: significant difference between sites 1 and 5 (p=0.002); §§: significant difference between sites 4 and 5 (p=0.020); ƒƒ: overall p-value.