TABLE 1

Association between chronotype and respiratory symptoms

Unadjusted RR (95% CI)Adjusted RR (95% CI)
Ever wheeze
 Morning type11
 Intermediate type0.98 (0.75–1.28)0.97 (0.72–1.31)
 Evening type1.50 (1.02–2.21)1.44 (0.93–2.25)
Current wheeze
 Morning type11
 Intermediate type1.03 (0.70–1.51)1.02 (0.67–1.56)
 Evening type1.83 (1.08–3.11)1.85 (1.02–3.35)
Ever rhinitis
 Morning type11
 Intermediate type1.69 (1.36–2.11)1.66 (1.30–2.11)
 Evening type2.47 (1.86–3.28)2.51 (1.84–3.42)
Current rhinitis
 Morning type11
 Intermediate type1.87 (1.45–2.43)1.73 (1.31–2.29)
 Evening type2.97 (2.14–4.11)2.76 (1.94–3.92)
Current rhinoconjunctivitis
 Morning type11
 Intermediate type1.59 (1.10–2.29)1.51 (1.02–2.23)
 Evening type2.65 (1.65–4.28)2.43 (1.47–4.03)
Ever asthma
 Morning type11
 Intermediate type2.15 (1.53–3.03)1.82 (1.25–2.65)
 Evening type3.79 (2.49–5.75)2.67 (1.65–4.31)

Each respiratory symptom was tested in a single model. In adjusted models, sex, area of residence, parental atopy/asthma, exposure to second-hand smoke at home, having a pet at home and number of siblings were included as confounders. RR: relative risk. Bold type indicates p<0.05.