TABLE 2

CT findings, diagnostic procedures, therapy, complications, and survival of 16 patients with amyloidosis of the respiratory system

No.CT findings (maximum diameter)Diagnostic procedureTherapyComplications during follow-upSurvival
1Single nodule (12 mm)VATS-LBNoneMultiple nodules, multiple cysts (17 years later)Alive: 17 years
2Single nodule (30 mm)VATS-LBNone, surgery: MALT lymphomaMALT lymphoma (10 years later)Alive: 16 years
3Multiple nodules+multiple micronodules >10 (30 mm), calcification, multiple cystsVATS-LBNone, surgery: MALT LymphomaMALT lymphoma (5 and 10 years later), Sjögren's syndrome (4 years later)Alive: 20 years
4Multiple (4) nodules (20 mm)+multiple cysts, calcificationVATS-LBSurgery: MALT lymphomaNoneAlive: 10 years
5Multiple (2) nodules (18 mm)+multiple cystsVATS-LBNoneCysts increase (9 years later)Alive: 11 years
6Multiple (3) nodules (15 mm)+multiple micronodules+multiple cysts, calcificationVATS-LBRA therapyNoneDied at 7 years of pneumonia
7Multiple (>10) nodules (10 mm)+multiple micronodulesVATS-LBNoneNoneDied at 5 years of pancreatic cancer
8Tracheobronchial thickening+CHPTBB, CHP via VATSNoneNoneAlive: 3 years
9Mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy, calcificationEBUS-TBNANoneNoneAlive: 6 years
10Bilateral pleural effusion+pleural thickeningVATS pleural biopsyDexamethasoneNoneDied at 1 year of MM
11Bilateral pleural effusion+mediastinal lymphadenopathy+interlobular septal thickeningVATS-LB and VATS-MLNBPrednisoloneNoneDied at 1.8 years of cardiac and respiratory amyloidosis
12DAHTBLBMelphalan+prednisoloneNoneDied at 1 year of MM
13PCPTBLBRA therapyNoneDied at 3 years of cardiac and renal failure
14DAHTBLBNoneDiffuse pulmonary haemorrhage (3 times)Died at 3 years of cardiac failure
15Lung cancer (single nodule)VATS lobectomyNoneNoneAlive: 0.6 year
16Bilateral pleural effusion+mediastinal lymphadenopathyEBUS-TBNAMelphalan+dexamethasoneNoneDied at 4 months of cardiac and renal failure

CT: computed tomography; VATS-LB: video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy; MALT: mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue; RA: rheumatoid arthritis; CHP: chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis; TBB: transbronchial biopsy; EBUS-TBNA: endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration; DAH: diffuse alveolar haemorrhage; MM: multiple myeloma; PCP: pneumocystis pneumonia; VATS-MLNB: VATS mediastinal lymph node biopsy; TBLB: transbronchial lung biopsy.