Subject characteristics at visit 1 (baseline)

Study population, n=1988Males, n=1231Females, n=757
Baseline data
 Age years65.1±8.465.8±8.363.8±8.3
 Height cm171±9176±7163±7
 BMI kg·m−226.6±5.227.2±4.925.7±5.4
 Smoking history pack-years49.6±36.054.1±38.642.0±29.6
Lung function
 GOLD 1/2/3/4 (GLI)187/847/766/188116/523/470/12271/324/296/66
 FEV1 % pred (GLI)53.1±18.453.0±18.853.3±17.9
 FVC % pred (GLI)78.8±18.878.8±19.178.9±18.2
 RV % pred (ECSC)176.1±51.4170.2±50.3185.6±51.8
 FRC % pred (ECSC)151.5±35.4146.6±34.1159.5±35.9
 TLC % pred (ECSC)119.4±18.2114.9±16.6126.5±18.4
 RV/TLC % pred137.2±27.4134.4±28.6141.7±24.7
 IVC % pred84.2±19.184.1±20.184.3±19.1
 FRC/TLC % pred118.1±17.1114.5±16.6124.0±16.2
Hyperinflation (ULN)1377 (69.3%)801 (65.1%)576 (76.1%)

Data are mean±SD, numbers or percentages. Hyperinflation is defined as RV/TLC above individual predicted value (ECSC)+1.645 sd (equivalent to ULN). There were significant differences (p<0.05) between males and females in all parameters except for FEV1% pred, FVC % pred, IVC % pred as well as GOLD grades. BMI: body mass index; GOLD: Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease; GLI: Global Lung Function Initiative; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; % pred; percentage predicted; FVC: forced vital capacity; RV: residual volume; ECSC: European Coal and Steel Community; FRC: functional residual capacity; TLC: total lung capacity; IVC: slow inspiratory vital capacity; ULN: upper limit of normal.