TABLE 1

Statistically significant predictors of malignancy and outcomes

Predictive of histological malignancyNo association with histological malignancyPredictive of reduced survival or recurrenceNo association with poor outcomes
Increased tumour sizeBoddeart (80), Harrison-Phipps (84), England (223), Gupta (28), Helage (56), Lahon (157), Tan (82)Yeom (41), Cardillo (110), McGuire (23)Franzen – DFS (42),
Tapias – RFS (59)
Schmid (25), McGuire (23), Guo (39)
Presence of symptomsBoddeart (80), Cardillo (110), Lahon (157)McGuire (23), Tan (82)Schmid (25), McGuire (23), Tapias (59), Franzen (42)
Parietal rather than visceral tumour originEngland (223)McGuire (23), Cardillo (110), Harrison-Phipps (84), Boddeart (80), Lahon (157), Tan (82)Tapias – RFS (59)McGuire (23), Cardillo (110), Franzen (42)
Sessile attachmentEngland (223), Lahon (157)McGuire (23), Gupta (28), Harrison-Phipps (84), Boddeart (80)Boddeart – DFS (80),
Lahon – recurrence (157)
Franzen (42), Tapias (59), McGuire (23)
Pleural effusionBoddeart (80), England (223), Gupta (28), Helage (56)Tapias – RFS (59),
Boddeart – OS and DFS (80)
Intra-tumoural calcificationGupta (28)Helage (56)
Malignant features on histologyN/AN/AFranzen – DFS (42), Lahon – DFS (157), Boddeart – DFS (80), Cardillo – DFS (110),
Harrison-Phipps – recurrence and OS (84)
McGuire (23), Franzen (42), Boddeart – OS (80)

Bold type: remains significant on multivariate analysis; roman type: multivariate analysis not undertaken; italic type: no longer significant on multivariate analysis. Numbers in parenthesis are the number of patients in the study. DFS: disease-free survival; RFS: recurrence-free survival; OS: overall survival.