TABLE 1

A summary of UK national# COPD audit findings, 1997–2019

PilotCross-sectional national#Continuous prospective national#
1997 [11]2001 [12] (LT/LD/SD)2003 [13, 19]2008 [14, 20]2014 [15, 21]2017 [16, 22]2017–2018 [17]2018–2019 [18]
MethodVolunteer hospitals, retrospective audit of 40 consecutive admissionsVolunteer hospitals, 8 weeks of prospective data collectionAll admitting units invited to take part, 40 consecutive admissionsAll admitting units invited to take part, up to 60 consecutive admissionsAll admitting units invited to take part, all cases over 3 monthsAll admitting units invited to take part, continuous audit of all casesAll admitting units invited to take part, continuous audit of all casesAll admitting units invited to take part, continuous audit of all cases
Reporting period dd/mm/yyyyFrom 01/09/1997From 01/02/2001From 01/09/2003From 03/03/2008From 01/02/2014Cases discharged 01/02/17–13/09/17Cases discharged 14/09/17–30/09/18Cases discharged 01/10/18–30/09/19
Units4330##234232199182 (95%)179195 (86%)
Cases140013668013971613 41434 64174 64582 268
Case ascertainmentNot ascertainedNot ascertainedNot ascertainedNot ascertained67 (48–91)%54 (31–73)%55 (34–70)Not yet available
Median annual emergency COPD admissions per unit458 (n=196)504 (n=202)570 (n=198)609 (n=190)
Median WTE respiratory consultant per 1000 COPD admissions5.36.77.5
Median COPD nurse per 1000 COPD admissions1.90.91.3
Median specialist physio per 1000 COPD admissions2.21.91.9
Age years72 (66–78)72/71/7171±1073±1072 (65–80)73 (65–80)73 (65–79)71±11
Sex F:M44:5342/58; 39/61; 46/5347:5350:5051:4953:4753:4754:46
Length of Stay days8 (4–12)6/7/7 (3/5/4–12/11/11)6 (3–11)5 (3–10)4 (2–8)4 (2–7)4 (2–7)4 (2–7)
Inpatient mortality5%/9%/12%7.7%7.8%4.3%3.9%3.8%3.6%
Death by 3 months13 (9–20)%12%/11%/18%15 (9–21)%14%12%11%12%Not yet available
Readmission by 3 months34 (25–44)%Not recorded32 (22–40)%33%43%43%43%Not yet available
Specialist reviewNot recordedNot recorded70% at any time78% at any time79% at any time;
Median 26 h
78% at any time;
55% within 24 h;
Median 16 h
85% at any time;
64% within 24 h;
Median 15 h
87% at any time;
66% within 24 h;
Median 15 h
Units with access to an integrated care team (%)455982
Spirometry available53%§F§: 50%/46%/37%
M§: 53%/52%/32%
55%§55%46%40%41%46%
Noninvasive ventilation3%ƒ8%/6%/2%9%11%;
25% in ≤3 h
12%; 42% in ≤3 h11%10%; 21% ≤2 h10%; 24% ≤2 h
Smoking cessation advice to smokers30 (14–45)%29%/26%/17%Not recordedNot recorded58%
Inhaler technique assessed20 (4–26)%34%/11%/11%Not recordedNot recordedNot recordedDISCHARGE BUNDLE¶¶
53%
DISCHARGE BUNDLE¶¶
67%
DISCHARGE BUNDLE¶¶
74%
Assessed for PR3 (0–3) %Not recordedNot recordedNot recorded56%
Follow-up arranged63 (50–80%)Not recordedNot recordedNot recordedNot recorded

Data are presented as mean±sd, median (IQR) or %, unless otherwise stated, and variation was not always reported in the original (referenced) reports. WTE: whole time equivalents; LT: large teaching; LD: large district; SD: small district; F: female; M: male; PR: pulmonary rehabilitation; IQR: interquartile range; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; NIV: noninvasive ventilation. #: See individual reports for detail on inclusion of data from England, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales; : not all data available for all variables, sum may not be 100% if some data missing; §: for FEV1 and within 5 years; ƒ: invasive or NIV combined; ##: deliberately selected as a mix of 10 LT, 10 LD and 10 SD hospitals representative across England and Wales; ¶¶: A standard British Thoracic Society bundle consists of these four metrics combined.