Independent clinical characteristics associated with the presence of early chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) identified by multiple regression logistic analysis (by odds ratio value)

OR (95% CI)p-value
Hospital admission for respiratory disease before the age of 5 years9.292 (2.57–36.10)<0.001
Emergency room visits due to respiratory reasons9.160 (1.43–180.74)<0.05
mMRC ≥22.336 (1.36–4.14)<0.01
Packs-years1.030 (1.00–1.06)<0.05
KCO % ref.0.950 (0.92–0.98)<0.001
Active worker0.391 (0.16–0.99)<0.05

mMRC: modified Medical Research Council scale; KCO: transfer coefficient of the lung for carbon monoxide; % ref.: % of reference value.