TABLE 1

Patient characteristics

CharacteristicsSubjects
Patients n165
Female sex66 (40.0%)
Age years mean62.8
Smoking117 (70.9%)
 Active43 (26.1%)
 Pack-years mean#38.3
Prior episode(s) of haemoptysis38 (23.0%)
Comorbidities
 COPD47 (28.5%)
 Bronchiectasis42 (25.5%)
 Cystic fibrosis13 (7.9%)
 Pulmonary hypertension7 (4.2%)
 Atrial fibrillation24 (14.5%)
 Cardiac ischaemic disease40 (24.2%)
 Heart failure15 (9.1%)
 Thromboembolic disease6 (3.6%)
Lung cancer
  •  Past lung cancer

13 (7.9%)
  •  Active lung cancer

42 (25.5%)
  •  Known endobronchial lesion

19 (11.5%)
Medication
 ASA57 (34.5%)
 Clopidogrel7 (4.2%)
 ASA and clopidogrel5 (3.0%)
 Oral anticoagulant
  •  Apixaban/rivaroxaban/dabigatran

8 (4.8%)
  •   Warfarin

20 (12.1%)
  •   INR mean

2.56
 LMWH (therapeutic dosage)7 (4.2%)
 Intravenous heparin5 (3.0%)
 ASA+one anticoagulant10 (6.1%)

Data are presented as n (%), unless otherwise stated. ASA: acetylsalicylic acid; INR: international normalised ratio; LMWH: low molecular weight heparin. #: including both active and former smokers.