TABLE 3

Time course, causes of death and complications on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)

Survivors (n=29)Nonsurvivors (n=14)Total (n=43)
Days on ECMO14 (8–21)12.5 (5.75–18)13 (8–20)
Causes of death
 On ECMO6 (42.9)
  Full active treatment#2 (33.3)
  Limits of care4 (66.7)
 Withdrawal of ECMO6 (42.9)
  Progression of ICH with brainstem herniation1 (16.7)
  Extensive cerebral infarction and multi-organ failure2 (33.3)
  Poor respiratory prognosis and multi-organ failure3 (50.0)
 Post-ECMO2 (14.3)
  Progression of extensive cerebral infarction and multi-organ failure1 (50.0)
  Refractory respiratory failure with severe fibrotic lung disease1 (50.0)
Complications on ECMO
 Bleeding leading to transfusion4 (13.8)1 (7.1)5 (11.6)
 Bleeding leading to transfusion and intervention3 (10.3)0 (0)3 (7.0)
 Bacteraemia3 (10.3)1 (7.1)4 (9.3)
 Tension pneumothorax2 (6.9)3 (21.4)5 (11.6)
 Myocarditis and cardiac tamponade0 (0)1 (7.1)1 (2.3)

Data are presented as n (%) or median (interquartile range). ICH: intracerebral haemorrhage. #: Causes of deaths on ECMO: 1) spontaneous retroperitoneal haemorrhage 2) myocarditis with cardiac tamponade.