Treatment failure overall and for patients with or without inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) prescriptions in the baseline year for patients treated with oral corticosteroids (OCS) for COPD exacerbations in a primary-care setting (Cohort 1) and patients hospitalised due to COPD exacerbations (Cohort 2)

OutcomePopulation size nFailure overallFailure with ICSFailure without ICSp-value ICS versus no ICS
Cohort 1 (n=2482)
 Overall treatment failure#24821103 (44.4)914 (45.0)189 (42.0)0.250
 Hospital admission for COPD2482255 (10.3)218 (10.7)37 (8.2)0.113
 OCS repeat prescription64162187 (34.1)1752 (34.6)435 (32.3)0.118
 Antibiotic prescription6416623 (9.7)525 (10.4)98 (7.3)0.001
Cohort 2 (n=10 245)
 Hospital readmission10 2451189 (11.6)986 (11.9)203 (10.5)0.084

Data are presented as n (%) unless otherwise stated. HES: Hospital Episode Statistics. #: overall treatment failure for patients with HES linkage; treatment failure was defined as a COPD-related hospital admission or accident and emergency department visit, prescription for antibiotics with lower respiratory consultation or a repeat prescription for OCS. : patients with HES linkage.