Statistically significant effects of age of pubertal events onset on lung function at age 26 years through height growth and lung function at age 18 years in males in the Isle of Wight (IOW) cohort, further tested in the replication cohort, Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)

CohortAge of onset of pubertal eventsLung functionTotal effect#Direct effect#Indirect effect#
Est (95% CI)p-valueEst (95% CI)p-valueEst (95% CI)p-value
IOWBody hair growthFVC0.15 (0.04–0.25)5.77×10−30.07 (−0.01–0.15)0.0780.08 (0.01–0.15)0.047
Growth spurtFVC0.13 (0.02–0.24)0.0170.04 (−0.04–0.12)0.2820.09 (0.01–0.17)0.034
Facial hair growthFVC0.18 (0.08–0.28)5.35×10−40.09 (0.01–0.16)0.0260.09 (0.02–0.16)0.014
ALSPACBody hair growthFVC0.07 (0.02–0.12)0.0060.03 (−0.02–0.08)0.2190.04 (0.01–0.07)0.003

For the IOW, only statistically significant results are included in the table. Est: regression coefficient estimate; FVC: forced vital capacity. #: unit for all the regression coefficients is L·year−1 representing expected lung function change for 1-year increase in pubertal age. : in the IOW cohort, mediation effects were observed for FVC only. Thus, in the replication cohort ALSPAC, only FVC was evaluated. The ages of growth spurt and facial hair growth were not available in ALSPAC. Age at body hair growth is identified by age at attainment of Tanner stage >2 in ALSAPC cohort. Bold indicates statistically significant p-values.