TABLE 4

Dynamics of the most prevalent drug classes used by newly diagnosed patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and their matched controls

Drug class, nameATCIPF casesControls
New users before IPF#Ongoing users before IPFDiscontinued after IPF+New users before index date#Ongoing users before index dateDiscontinued after index date+
Combinations of penicillin, including β-lactamase inhibitorsJ01CR63 (9.7)127 (19.5)32/86 (37.2)76 (1.2)158 (2.4)94/163 (63.1)
Glucocorticoids, systemicH02AB56 (8.6)223 (34.3)33/153 (21.6)50 (0.8)277 (4.3)85/262 (32.4)
MucolyticsR05CB42 (6.5)105 (16.2)15/80 (18.8)17 (0.3)36 (0.6)n<10
Proton pump inhibitorsA02BC38 (5.8)242 (37.2)18/193 (9.3)102 (1.6)1016 (15.6)140/993 (14.1)
Selective β2-adrenoreceptor agonistsR03AC36 (5.5)124 (19.1)40/97 (41.2)35 (0.5)341 (5.2)75/334 (22.5)
Loop diureticsC03CA31 (4.8)152 (23.4)24/108 (22.2)58 (0.9)543 (8.4)48/522 (9.2)
PotassiumA12BA28 (4.3)123 (18.9)18/85 (21.2)71 (1.1)506 (7.8)53/483 (11.0)
Adrenergics in combination with corticosteroids or other drugs, excluding anticholinergicsR03AK24 (3.7)90 (13.8)27/71 (38.0)21 (0.3)295 (4.5)21/287 (7.3)
MacrolidesJ01FA23 (3.5)122 (18.8)56/92 (60.9)39 (0.6)216 (3.3)147/208 (70.7)
ParacetamolN02BE23 (3.5)193 (29.7)21/144 (14.6)155 (2.4)1261 (19.4)232/1219 (19.0)
Other immunosuppressantsL04AX22 (3.4)71 (10.9)22/48 (45.8)n<1062 (1.0)n<10
FluoroquinolonesJ01MA21 (3.2)45 (6.9)16/27 (59.3)48 (0.7)98 (1.5)n<10
Natural opium alkaloidsN02AA20 (3.1)49 (7.5)n<1064 (1.0)196 (3.0)57/187 (30.5)
Inhaled anticholinergicsR03BB20 (3.1)75 (11.5)16/53 (30.2)27 (0.4)224 (3.4)20/215 (9.3)
Penicillins with extended spectrumJ01CA18 (2.8)76 (11.7)26/54 (48.1)58 (0.9)361 (5.6)196/345 (56.8)
Osmotically acting laxativesA06AD17 (2.6)23 (3.5)n<1043 (0.7)143 (2.2)40/123 (32.5)
Adrenergics in combination with anticholinergicsR03AL16 (2.5)34 (5.2)n<1022 (0.3)68 (1.0)14/59 (23.7)
Opium alkaloids and derivativesR05DA15 (2.3)47 (7.2)19/36 (52.8)31 (0.5)142 (2.2)n<10
BisphosphonatesM05BA15 (2.3)84 (12.9)n<1019 (0.3)237 (3.6)n<10
Other opioidsN02AX14 (2.2)71 (10.9)18/54 (33.3)75 (1.2)422 (6.5)153/409 (37.4)
Benzodiazepine-related drugsN05CF14 (2.2)73 (11.2)13/51 (25.5)36 (0.6)386 (5.9)76/375 (20.3)
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitorsN06AB13 (2.0)59 (9.1)n<1022 (0.3)388 (6.0)46/376 (12.2)
Aldosterone antagonistsC03DA13 (2.0)38 (5.8)n<1015 (0.2)157 (2.4)n<10
Platelet aggregation inhibitorsB01AC12 (1.8)224 (34.5)15/168 (8.9)62 (1.0)1714 (26.4)79/1675 (4.7)
PropulsivesA03FA12 (1.8)24 (3.7)n<1018 (0.3)57 (0.9)30/50 (60.0)
StatinsC10AA12 (1.8)235 (36.2)13/182 (7.1)68 (1.0)2018 (31.0)87/1991 (4.4)
Contact laxativesA06AB11 (1.7)12 (1.8)n<1038 (0.6)83 (1.3)26/74 (35.1)
Thiazides and potassium in combinationC03AB11 (1.7)71 (10.9)13/54 (24.1)36 (0.6)765 (11.8)85/756 (11.2)
Corticosteroids and anti-infectives in combinationS01CA10 (1.5)13 (2.0)n<1066 (1.0)131 (2.0)101/131 (77.1)
Organic nitratesC01DA10 (1.5)48 (7.4)10/31 (32.3)25 (0.4)192 (3.0)49/185 (26.5)
Opium cough suppressants and expectorantsR05FA10 (1.5)28 (4.3)16/22 (72.7)23 (0.4)84 (1.3)61/84 (72.6)
Systemic triazole antifungalsJ02AC10 (1.5)23 (3.5)n<1020 (0.3)51 (0.8)n<10
Vitamin K antagonistsB01AA10 (1.5)46 (7.1)n<1027 (0.4)378 (5.8)19/370 (5.1)
Imidazole and triazole derivativesD01AC10 (1.5)36 (5.5)23/29 (79.3)60 (0.9)228 (3.5)129/218 (59.2)
Glucocorticoids, inhaledR03BA10 (1.5)31 (4.8)13/26 (50.0)16 (0.2)158 (2.4)30/158 (19.0)

Data are presented as n (%) or n/N (%). ATC: Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification. #: first ever occurrence of the drug class within 6 months before the index date/diagnosis date. : any occurrence of the drug class within the 6 months before the index date/diagnosis date. +: the absence of any prescriptions of the drug class after the index date/diagnosis date compared to ongoing use; the denominator represents ongoing users who also have a 6-month follow-up after the IPF diagnosis meaning that the denominator varies according to each drug.