Statistically significant effects of age of pubertal events onset on lung function at age 26 years through height growth and lung function at age 18 years in females in the Isle of Wight (IOW) cohort, further tested in the replication cohort, Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)

CohortAge of onset of pubertal eventsLung functionTotal effect#Direct effect#Indirect effect#
Est (95% CI)p-valueEst (95% CI)p-valueEst (95% CI)p-value
IOWMenarcheFVC0.18 (0.09–0.28)1.71×10−40.05 (−0.03–0.14)0.1980.13 (0.05–0.20)1.28×10−3
Body hair growthFVC0.14 (0.04–0.23)4.27×10−30.06 (−0.02–0.13)0.1400.08 (0.01–0.15)0.017
MenarcheFEV10.21 (0.11–0.30)1.88×10−50.12 (0.04–0.20)5.15×10−30.09 (0.01–0.17)0.028
Body hair growthFEV10.13 (0.03–0.23)8.01×10−30.06 (−0.02–0.13)0.1220.07 (0.01–0.14)0.043
ALSPACMenarcheFVC0.25 (0.21–0.30)<10−310.05 (0.00–0.10)0.0540.21 (0.17–0.24)<10−31
Body hair growthFVC0.16 (0.12–0.20)5.99×10−140.02 (−0.01–0.06)0.2520.13 (0.11–0.16)<10−31
MenarcheFEV10.25 (0.21–0.29)<10−310.05 (0.00–0.10)0.0660.20 (0.17–0.24)<10−31
Body hair growthFEV10.15 (0.11–0.19)1.67×10−120.02 (−0.02–0.06)0.5700.13 (0.11–0.17)<10−31

For the IOW, only statistically significant results are included in the table. Est: regression coefficient estimate; FVC: forced vital capacity; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s. #: unit for all the regression coefficients is L·year−1 representing expected lung function change for 1-year increase in pubertal age; : age at body hair growth is identified by age at attainment of Tanner stage >2 in ALSPAC cohort. Bold indicates statistically significant p-values.