TABLE 1

Baseline characteristics in combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) with and without lung cancer (LC) diagnosis

CPFECPFE-LCp-value
Patients20426
Age at diagnosis of CPFE years (95% CI)68±9.1 (67–70)66±7.1 (63–69)0.18
Male155 (76)18 (69)0.45
Smoking status0.31
 Active12 (5.5)2 (8)
 Former192 (94)24 (92)
Smoker pack-years (95% CI)56±24.6 (46–66)50±28.3 (46–54)0.08
Finger clubbing40 (20)7 (27)0.39
LABA use117 (57)11 (42)0.15
Systemic steroid70 (34)10 (38)0.68
Immunosuppressive agents15 (7.4)1 (4)0.51
Home oxygen155 (76)16 (62)0.11
RVSP mmHg49 (39–63)49 (32–66.5)0.40
PFT findings
 TLC % pred (95% CI)84.1±16.7 (81–87)91.2±16.1 (82–100)0.12
 FVC % pred (95% CI)80.8±18.5 (78–84)85.8±18.2 (78–94)0.22
 FEV1 % pred (95% CI)75.8±18.9 (73–79)76.7±16.3 (70–84)0.83
 FEV1/FVC (95% CI)73.5±11.5 (72–75)71±12.3 (66–76)0.31
DLCO % pred (95% CI)42.9±16.9 (40–45)49.6±16.9 (42–58)0.09
 PFT pattern#0.86
  Normal9 (4)1 (4)
  Obstructive46 (23)7 (30)
  Restrictive63 (31)5 (22)
  Isolated low DLCO60 (29)6 (26)
  Nonspecific9 (4)3 (13)
  Mixed1 (0.5)1 (4)
Radiological features
 Presence of honeycombing74 (36)9 (35)1.0
 Distribution of emphysema0.90
  Centrilobular81 (40)9 (35)
  Subpleural32 (16)3 (12)
  Mixed91 (45)8 (31)
Lung transplantation8 (4)0 (0)0.88
All-cause mortality103 (50)21 (81)0.003

Data are presented as n, mean±sd, n (%) or median (interquartile range), unless otherwise stated. Bold type represents statistical significance. LABA: long-acting β2-agonist; RVSP: right ventricular systolic pressure; PFT: pulmonary function test; TLC: total lung capacity; FVC: forced vital capacity; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; DLCO: diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide. #: CPFE n=188, CPFE-LC n=23.