TABLE 2

Bias assessment

First author [ref.]YearDomain 1Domain 2Domain 3Domain 4Cumulative scoreRisk of bias category
Risk scoreConcernRisk scoreRisk scoreConcernRisk score
Abbas [11]2017100.50.500.52.5Intermediate
Aman [12]2011100.5000.52Intermediate
Arif [13]2002110.50013.5High
Bai [14]2017110.50.5003High
Bajwa [15]2013111000.53.5High
Bauer [16]2000000.50.5001Low
Bersten [17]20010.510.50002.0Intermediate
Bos [18]2014000000.50.5Low
Bos [19]2014000000.50.5Low
Brett [20]1998100.5000.52Intermediate
Bursten [21]19960.500.5000.51.5Low
Copetti [22]20080110002Intermediate
Determann [23]2009111000.53.5High
El Solh [24]20050110.5002.5Intermediate
Fremont [25]2010100.50.5013High
Grissom [26]20030.5010.5013High
Herrera [27]19880.500.50.500.52Intermediate
Hoeboer [28]20150000000Low
Howrylak [29]2009100.50012.5Intermediate
Huang [30]2019010.50.5002Intermediate
Izquierdo-Garcia [31]2018110.50.5003High
Jabaudon [32]20180.5000000.5Low
Jorens [33]19921010.5002.5Intermediate
Kietzmann [34]19930.5010.5013High
Kushimoto [35]20121000001Low
LeTourneau [36]20120.500.50012Intermediate
Lin [37]2012000.50000.5Low
Lin [38]2013000.50.5001Low
Lin [39]2018000.5000.51Low
Liu [40]2015110.50.500.53.5High
Liu [41]2017010.500.502Intermediate
Monnet [42]20071010.5002.5Intermediate
Park [43]20171010.5013.5High
Sato [44]20041110.5014.5High
Sekiguchi [45]20151000001Low
Shan [46]2016101000.52.5Intermediate
Sweeney [47]20181001114High
Verheij [48]20051010013High
Ware [49]2013100.50001.5Low
Ware [50]2017100.50012.5Intermediate
Wu [51]20190100.500.52Intermediate
Xue [52]20151010.5002.5Intermediate
Yeh [53]20170010001Low
Zhou [54]20190.500.5000.51.5Low