Included studies

First author [ref.]YearPopulationARDSControl groupBiomarkers
Abbas [11]2017ICU generalBerlin15Unselected ICU19MBG/creatinine
Aman [12]2011ICU generalOther48Unselected ICU14Albumin, transferrin
Arif [13]2002ICU generalOther12CPE16Transferrin, total protein, albumin, PLI
Bai [14]2017Specific groupBerlin29Unselected ICU21Glutamate increase
Bajwa [15]2013ICU generalAECC826CPE209sST2
Bauer [16]2000Specific groupOther46CPE20TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6
Bersten [17]2001ICU generalOther34Unselected ICU20SP-A, SP-B
Bos [18]2014ICU generalBerlin59Unselected ICU42Three metabolites identified by GCMS
Bos [19]2014ICU generalBerlin92Unselected ICU58Pattern recognised by e-nose 1, pattern recognised by e-nose 2
Brett [20]1998ICU generalAECC18Unselected ICU13NO
Bursten [21]1996ICU generalAECC13Unselected ICU17Acyl ratio
Copetti [22]2008ICU generalAECC40CPE187 characteristics of lung ultrasound
Determann [23]2009ICU generalAECC15Pneumonia10CC16, CC16 increase, KL-6, sRAGE, SP-D
El Solh [24]2005Specific groupAECC34Unselected ICU17PAI-1
Fremont [25]2010Specific groupAECC85Unselected ICU107Model with 7 biomarkers, model with 3 biomarkers
Grissom [26]2003ICU generalAECC6Unselected ICU33PAF-AH
Herrera [27]1988Cardiac care unitOther11CPE23PPK
Hoeboer [28]2015Specific groupBerlin1790Unselected ICU143Albumin
Howrylak [29]2009ICU generalBerlin53Unselected ICU48Genetic model
Huang [30]2019SepsisAECC21Unselected ICU21IG percentage
Izquierdo-Garcia [31]2018Specific groupAECC31Pneumonia25Metabolic biomarker panel
Jabaudon [32]2018ICU generalBerlin188Unselected ICU34sRAGE 0, sRAGE 1, sRAGE 1–0
Jorens [33]1992ICU generalOther12Unselected ICU15IL-8
Kietzmann [34]1993ICU generalOther29Unselected ICU7Maximum H2O2
Kushimoto [35]2012ICU generalOther59CPE207PVPI, ITBV
LeTourneau [36]2012ICU generalAECC10Unselected ICU19EVLWi, PaO2/FIO2, EDI
Lin [37]2012ICU generalBerlin129Unselected ICU83Copeptin
Lin [38]2013ICU generalAECC28CPE78HBP
Lin [39]2018ICU generalAECC34CPE87CC16, CRP
Liu [40]2015Specific groupBerlin10Unselected ICU18MDA, NO, H2O2, 8-isoprostaglandin F2 α, TNF-α, IL-8, SOD, IL-10
Liu [41]2017SepsisAECC115Unselected ICU19PARK7
Monnet [42]2007ICU generalOther12CPE36PVPI, ELVWi/GEDVi
Park [43]2017ICU generalBerlin368Unselected ICU39SP-D
Sato [44]2004ICU generalAECC9Unselected ICU28KL-6
Sekiguchi [45]2015ICU generalAECC59CPE42CCUS prediction model
Shan [46]2016ICU generalBerlin47Unselected ICU45suPAR, hsCRP, PCT
Sweeney [47]2018ICU generalBerlin236Unselected ICU148Model with 7 genes
Verheij [48]2005ICU generalOther13CPE13PLI, PTCER, Ga/Tc slope/intercept, Ga/Tc monoexponential TER
Ware [49]2013SepsisAECC100Unselected ICU100Model with 5 biomarkers
Ware [50]2017Specific groupBerlin315Unselected ICU78Model with 11 biomarkers, model with 2 biomarkers
Wu [51]2019Specific groupBerlin60Unselected ICU13CC16
Xue [52]2015SepsisOther94Unselected ICU73Tissue factor
Yeh [53]2017SepsisAECC111Unselected ICU18Gas6
Zhou [54]2019ICU generalBerlin27Unselected ICU21Panel with 9 metabolites

Abbreviations (in alphabetical order): AECC: American–European consensus criteria; ARDS: acute respiratory distress syndrome; CC16: Club cell protein 16; CCUS: critical care ultrasonography; CPE: cardiac pulmonary oedema; CRP: C-reactive protein; EDI: EVLW physiological dead space index; EVLWi: extravascular lung water index; FIO2: inspiratory oxygen fraction; Gas6: growth arrest-specific gene 6; Ga/Tc: gallium/technetium; GCMS: gas chromatography mass spectrometry; GEDVi: global end-diastolic volume indexed for body surface; H2O2: hydrogen peroxide; HBP: heparin-binding protein; hsCRP: high sensitive C-reactive protein; ICU: intensive care unit; IG: immature granulocyte; IL: interleukin; ITBV: intrathoracic blood volume; KL: Krebs von den Lungen; MBG: marinobufagenin; MDA: malondialdehyde; NO: nitric oxide; PAF-AH: platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase; PAI-1: plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; PaO2: arterial oxygen tension; PARK7: Parkinson disease 7; PCT: procalcitonin; PLI: pulmonary leak index; PPK: prekallikrein; PTCER: pulmonary transcapillary escape rate; PVPI: extravascular lung water/pulmonary blood volume; SOD: superoxide dismutase; SP: surfactant protein; sRAGE: soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products; sST2: soluble suppression of tumorigenicity-2; suPAR: soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor; TER: transcapillary escape rate; TNF: tumour necrosis factor.