Characteristics of asthma patients at 12 years after diagnosis according to their level of asthma control (n=181)#

Age years56±14.661±12.40.011++
Female41 (73.2)67 (53.6)0.014§§
BMI kg·m−227.6±3.829.1±6.00.079++
Smokers (including ex-smokers)18 (32.1)73 (58.4)0.001§§
Smoking history pack-years7 (2–12)20 (10–32)<0.001ƒƒ
10pack-years and post-BD FEV1/FVC <0.74 (7.1)29 (23.4)0.011§§
Pre-BD FEV1% pred92 (86–99)82 (70–93)<0.001ƒƒ
Pre-BD FEV1/FVC0.75 (0.70–0.79)0.73 (0.64–0.78)0.016ƒƒ
Post-BD FEV1% pred96 (90–101)84 (75–96)<0.001ƒƒ
Post-BD FEV1/FVC0.77 (0.73–0.83)0.73 (0.65–0.79)0.002ƒƒ
Blood eosinophils ×109·L−10.17 (0.12–0.28)0.18 (0.09–0.27)0.353ƒƒ
Total IgE kU·L−151 (28–161)71 (24–172)0.617ƒƒ
FeNO ppb12 (6–19)10 (5–18)0.392ƒƒ
Blood neutrophils ×109·L−13.7 (3.0–4.6)3.9 (2.9–4.9)0.522ƒƒ
Prescribed daily dose of ICS µg BDP751 (502–939)838 (664–1023)0.014ƒƒ
Dispensed daily dose of ICS µg BDP411 (246–625)602 (354–838)0.002ƒƒ
Daily SABA+2 (3.6)###19 (15.2)0.024§§
Daily LABA+18 (32.1)77 (61.6)<0.001§§
Self-reported use of oral corticosteroid courses for asthma§12 (21.4)48 (39.0)0.06§§
Dispensed oral corticosteroid for asthma per year mgƒ44 (0–127)92 (0–240)0.013ƒƒ
Comorbidities1 (0–2)1 (0–3)0.057ƒƒ
Co-medications (nonrespiratory)1 (0–4)2 (0–4)0.124ƒƒ
AQ20 score2 (0–4)6 (3–9)<0.001ƒƒ
ACT score24 (22–25)20 (17–23)<0.001ƒƒ
Asthma-related visits to healthcare§,##12 (6–19)16 (10–26)0.014ƒƒ
Atopy¶¶27 (50.9)34 (30.6)0.016§§
≥1 hospital in-patient periods, asthma-related (unplanned)§1 (1.8)15 (12.0)0.024§§

Data are presented as n, mean±sd, n (%) or median (interquartile range), unless otherwise stated. BMI: body mass index; BD: bronchodilator; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC: forced vital capacity; IgE: immunoglobulin E; FeNO: exhaled nitric oxide fraction; ICS: inhaled corticosteroid; BDP: beclomethasone dipropionate equivalents; SABA: short-acting β2-agonist; LABA: long-acting β2-agonist; AQ20: Airways Questionnaire 20; ACT: Asthma Control Test. #: the results of lung function and inflammatory parameters have been published previously in patients with controlled, partially controlled and uncontrolled asthma [3]; : baseline ≥10 pack-years and post-BD FEV1/FVC ratio <0.7 in patients with controlled asthma (n=2, 3.6%) and patients with not-controlled asthma (n=13, 10.7%) (p=0.150); +: self-reported daily use; §: examined during the whole 12-year follow-up period; ƒ: values obtained from the Finnish Social Insurance Institution and were divided by the years of follow-up; ##: all respiratory-related scheduled and unscheduled contacts with healthcare due to asthma; ¶¶: defined as ≥1 positive response (≥3 mm) in skin prick test towards common aeroallergens [31]; ++: independent samples t-test; §§: Fisher's exact test; ƒƒ: independent samples Mann–Whitney U-test; ###: these two patients were not dispensed SABA in the year when asthma control was determined and therefore they were considered to belong to the group of controlled patients. However, they self-reported daily use of SABA and more SABA was dispensed in preceding years of the follow-up.