TABLE 5

The relationship between study-defined respiratory syndromes and diagnoses given by treating doctors

Syndromic diagnosisPatients nDiagnoses by healthcare workers
COPDAsthmaPneumoniaTBHeart failureBronchitisCommon coldNone of the labels
All facilities
 Fixed airflow limitation (COPD) without eosinophilia11540 (34.8)19 (16.5)17 (14.8)3 (2.6)0 (0.0)33 (28.7)9 (7.8)16 (13.9)
 Fixed airflow limitation (COPD) with eosinophilia8339 (47.0)11 (13.3)7 (8.4)3 (3.6)1 (1.2)15 (18.7)4 (4.8)15 (18.1)
 Reversible airflow limitation (asthma)265 (19.2)6 (23.1)2 (7.7)0 (0.0)2 (7.7)7 (26.9)5 (19.2)5 (19.2)
 Other airflow limitation#393 (7.7)7 (18.0)2 (5.1)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)16 (41.0)7 (18.0)10 (25.6)
 Lower respiratory tract infection8220 (24.4)2 (2.4)23 (28.1)12 (14.6)3 (3.7)16 (19.5)2 (2.4)20 (24.4)
 Tuberculosis141 (7.1)0 (0.0)5 (35.7)8 (57.1)0 (0.0)1 (7.1)0 (0.0)3 (21.4)
 Heart failure4614 (30.4)7 (15.2)11 (23.9)3 (6.5)5 (10.9)12 (26.1)4 (8.7)5 (10.9)
 Upper respiratory tract infection, common cold16012 (7.5)13 (8.1)7 (4.4)5 (3.1)1 (0.6)56 (35.0)57 (35.6)27 (16.9)
 None of above syndromes¶,+47050 (10.6)40 (8.5)46 (9.8)10 (2.1)3 (0.6)163 (34.7)65 (13.8)129 (27.5)
Central/provincial healthcare facilities
 Fixed airflow limitation (COPD) without eosinophilia5521 (38.2)12 (21.8)7 (12.7)2 (3.6)0 (0.0)17 (30.9)2 (3.6)6 (10.0)
 Fixed airflow limitation (COPD) with eosinophilia3723 (62.2)3 (8.1)5 (13.5)3 (8.1)0 (0.0)3 (8.1)0 (0.0)7 (18.9)
 Reversible airflow limitation (asthma)102 (20.0)2 (20.0)1 (10.0)0 (0.0)2 (20.0)2 (20.0)3 (30.0)1 (10.0)
 Other airflow limitation#160 (0.0)6 (37.5)1 (6.3)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)4 (25.0)2 (12.5)6 (37.5)
 Lower respiratory tract infection6819 (27.9)1 (1.5)21 (30.9)11 (16.2)3 (4.4)9 (13.2)1 (1.5)18 (26.5)
 Tuberculosis141 (7.1)0 (0.0)5 (35.7)8 (57.1)0 (0.0)1 (7.1)0 (0.0)3 (21.4)
 Heart failure3613 (36.1)6 (16.7)11 (30.6)3 (8.3)4 (11.1)6 (16.7)0 (0.0)4 (11.1)
 Upper respiratory tract infection, common cold719 (12.7)10 (14.1)2 (2.8)5 (7.0)1 (1.4)20 (28.2)16 (22.5)15 (21.1)
 None of above syndromes¶,+22033 (15.0)33 (15.0)31 (14.1)10 (4.6)2 (0.9)51 (23.2)16 (7.3)62 (28.2)
District healthcare facilities
 Fixed airflow limitation (COPD) without eosinophilia4618 (39.1)7 (15.2)6 (13.0)1 (2.2)0 (0.0)14 (30.4)6 (13.0)4 (8.7)
 Fixed airflow limitation (COPD) with eosinophilia3716 (43.2)8 (21.6)1 (2.7)0 (0.0)1 (2.7)9 (24.3)4 (10.8)3 (8.1)
 Reversible airflow limitation (asthma)133 (23.1)4 (30.8)1 (7.7)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)5 (38.5)2 (15.4)1 (7.7)
 Other airflow limitation#203 (15.0)1 (5.0)1 (5.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)11 (55.0)5 (25.0)2 (20.0)
 Lower respiratory tract infection141 (7.1)1 (7.1)2 (14.3)1 (7.1)0 (0.0)7 (50.0)1 (7.1)2 (14.3)
 Tuberculosis0
 Heart failure101 (10)1 (10)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (10)6 (60)4 (40)1 (10.0)
 Upper respiratory tract infection, common cold783 (3.9)3 (3.9)4 (5.1)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)32 (41.0)38 (48.7)9 (11.5)
 None of above syndromes¶,+20317 (8.4)6 (3.0)10 (4.9)0 (0.0)1 (0.5)96 (47.3)38 (18.7)49 (24.1)
Commune healthcare facilities
 Fixed airflow limitation (COPD) without eosinophilia141 (7.1)0 (0.0)4 (28.6)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)2 (14.3)1 (7.1)6 (42.9)
 Fixed airflow limitation (COPD) with eosinophilia90 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (11.1)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)3 (33.3)0 (0.0)5 (55.6)
 Reversible airflow limitation (asthma)30 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)3 (100.0)
 Other airflow limitation#30 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (33.3)0 (0.0)2 (66.7)
 Lower respiratory tract infection0
 Tuberculosis0
 Heart failure0
 Upper respiratory tract infection, common cold110 (0.0)0 (0.0)1 (9.1)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)4 (36.4)3 (27.3)3 (27.3)
 None of above syndromes¶,+470 (0.0)1 (2.1)5 (10.6)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)16 (34.0)11 (23.4)18 (38.3)

Data are presented as n (%) unless otherwise stated. Bolded text indicates patients in whom the syndromic diagnosis and healthcare worker diagnosis were in agreement. TB: tuberculosis. #: airflow limitation on initial spirometry without measure of post-bronchodilator spirometry; : includes patients without chest radiograph, spirometry or both; +: with none of the other syndromes.