TABLE 2

Demographic, physiological and laboratory data according to treatment groups

Oxygen aloneNHF/CPAP/NIVInvasive MV
Subjects n53178
Age years65±1562±1373±9
BMI kg·m−229.4±5.229.6±5.129.1±2.5
LOS days10.1±6.7*,#19.3±11.8#,¶34±26.9*,#
Temperature on admission °C38.3±1*39.1±0.939.1±0.5
SpO2 on admission %93.1±3.7#91.6±6#85.4±10.6*
Respiratory rate on admission min−120.6±4.4*25.7±6.723.5±7.6
Heart rate on admission min−190±2099±1695±21
Systolic arterial blood pressure on admission mmHg118±21110±22103±23
Diastolic arterial blood pressure on admission mmHg69±1168±1063±13
Haemoglobin nadir mg·dL−112.4±1.912.1±211±2.4
Leukocyte nadir µL−15745±27325724±26025512±1629
Lymphocyte nadir µL−1986±2015553±262469±342
LDH maximum U·L−1405±129*,#562±260#,¶741±190*
BNP maximum pg·mL−11773±3086669±895#5258±7659*
CRP maximum mg·dL−110.9±7.1*,#21.6±9.226.4±12.3
PCT maximum ng·mL−10.9±2#0.8±1.2#3±2.9*
Creatinine maximum mg·dL−11.25±0.62#1±0.3#2.6±1.4*
D-dimer maximum ng·mL−11530±1575#2698±24646574±5321
Troponin maximum µg·L−128.5±39#25.9±33.1#467±1047*
PO2 nadir mmHg54.5±1147.8±10.545.9±6.8

Data are presented as mean±sd unless otherwise stated. NHF: nasal high-flow; CPAP: continuous positive airway pressure; NIV: noninvasive ventilation; MV: mechanical ventilation; BMI: body mass index; LOS: length of (hospital) stay; SpO2: oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry; LDH: lactate dehydrogenase; BNP: brain natriuretic peptide; CRP: C-reactive protein; PCT: procalcitonin; PO2: oxygen tension. *: p<0.05 versus NHF/CPAP/NIV; #: p<0.05 versus invasive MV; : p<0.05 versus oxygen alone; +: on admission.