TABLE 3

Health-state utilities and QALY loss associated with each event

Health state#UtilityLower 95% CIUpper 95% CI
Moderate COPD0.7870.7710.802
Severe COPD0.7500.7310.768
Very severe COPD0.6470.5980.695
EventQALY loss per eventLower 95% CIUpper 95% CI
Moderate exacerbation0.0110.0060.020
Severe exacerbation0.0200.0200.030
Pneumonia+0.0110.0060.020

QALY: quality-adjusted life year; NICE: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. #: source Rutten-van Mölken et al. [20]; : source NICE Guidelines, 2010 [22]; +: assumption: equivalent to moderate exacerbation.