Itemised resource use and unit costs for COPD therapy and exacerbations

Cost categoryResource use (per annum/per exacerbation)#Unit cost (2017)Overall cost (per annum/per exacerbation)
Moderate COPD
 Outpatient visit, respiratory physician0.00£149.35£0.00
 Outpatient visit, GP2.00£36.68£73.37
 Influenza vaccination0.75£9.05£6.79
 Oxygen therapy (days)0.00£16.98£0.00
 Total cost of moderate COPD (per annum)£203.30
Severe COPD
 Outpatient visit, respiratory physician2.00£149.35£298.71
 Outpatient visit, GP0.00£36.68£0.00
 Influenza vaccination0.75£9.05£6.79
 Oxygen therapy (days)14.60£16.98£247.86
 Total cost of severe COPD (per annum)£676.51
Very severe COPD
 Outpatient visit, respiratory physician4.00£149.35£597.42
 Outpatient visit, GP0.00£36.68£0.00
 Influenza vaccination0.75£9.05£6.79
 Oxygen therapy (days)73.00£16.98£1239.32
 Total cost of very severe COPD (per annum)£2089.82
Moderate exacerbation
 ICU days0.00£1341.52£0.00
 Non-ICU days1.01£436.97£441.34
 ER visits0.03£200.94£6.03
 Outpatient visit, respiratory physician0.34£149.35£50.78
 Outpatient visit, GP0.66£36.68£24.21
 Visit other HCP0.27£98.52£26.60
 Systemic steroids7.94£0.27£2.11
 Oxygen therapy0.00£16.98£0.00
 Total cost per moderate exacerbation£553.28
Severe exacerbation
 ICU days0.86£1341.52£1153.71
 Non-ICU days11.08£436.97£4841.63
 ER visits0.25£200.94£50.24
 Outpatient visit, respiratory physician0.82£149.35£122.47
 Outpatient visit, GP0.70£36.68£25.68
 Visit other HCP0.50£98.52£49.26
 Systemic steroids24.08£0.27£6.40
 Oxygen therapy0.21£16.98£3.57
 Total cost per severe exacerbation£6259.49
Cost per pneumonia event£6533.07

Unit costs come from Oostenbrink et al. [14], National Health Service Reference Costs 2015/16 [15] and PSSRU, 2016 [16]. GP: general practitioner; ICU: intensive care unit; ER: emergency room; HCP: healthcare professional; PSSRU: Personal Social Services Research Unit. #: Resource use estimates were based on Oostenbrink et al., 2005 [14]; : unit cost represents the cost per day or visit, or per category.